ลมหายใจแข่งลายนิ้วมือ แต่ละคนมีกลิ่นผิดกัน

thairath130409_002วิทยาศาสตร์เปิดเผยให้เรารู้ว่า ลมหายใจของแต่ละคนมีกลิ่นและส่วนผสมไม่เหมือนกัน เช่นเดียวกับลายรอยนิ้วมือ

ส่วนผสมเหล่านี้เป็นขยะของสารเคมีที่มีอยู่ในตัว อาจจะใช้ในการวินิจฉัยโรค แบบเดียวกับการตรวจปัสสาวะและเลือด และการตรวจยาเสพติด
นักวิทยาศาสตร์ของสถาบันเทคโนโลยีสมาพันธรัฐสวิสผู้ค้นพบ กล่าวแสดงความประหลาดใจว่า น่าจะเอาไปใช้ในการตรวจวินิจฉัยโรคกันอย่างกว้างขวาง

เคยมีการศึกษารู้มาก่อนแล้วว่า สามารถตรวจรู้ประเภทของแบคทีเรียที่ก่อโรคปอดอักเสบและมะเร็งกระเพาะได้จากลมหายใจ.

ที่มา : ไทยรัฐ 9 เมษายน 2556
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Many "peaks" present in the breath analyses have not yet been identified - and could be diagnostic of disease

Many “peaks” present in the breath analyses have not yet been identified – and could be diagnostic of disease

Exhaled breath is unique fingerprint

By Jason Palmer
Science and technology reporter, BBC News

3 April 2013
Compounds present in exhaled breath can act as a “fingerprint” for individuals, scientists say.

These “metabolites” represent the waste products of the body’s chemistry – but their uniqueness had never been shown.

A study in PLOS ONE suggests they could be as useful to medical diagnosis as those found in urine or blood.

Because a breath test is non-invasive and the results are instantaneous, it could prove even more convenient for example in anaesthesia or doping tests.

“I don’t understand why breath hasn’t been a widely used [means of] medical science diagnosis,” said the study’s lead author Renato Zenobi of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich.

“In traditional Chinese medicine, they feel your pulse, look at your tongue and smell your breath,” he told BBC News. “There are trained dogs who can sniff cancer with a fairly good hit-rate – but the dog doesn’t tell you what the compounds are.”

Prior work has shown that the precise type of bacteria responsible for lung infections or even the presence of stomach cancer could be discerned in the breath.

What remained to be seen was whether the breath’s metabolic contents varied enough between people – and varied little enough within an individual – to be diagnostic – to act as a real and repeatable “breathprint”.

“You need to show there is a core individual signal that is stable over time,” Prof Zenobi said. “If it changes a lot during the course of the day or after you’ve had a coffee or smoked a cigarette, you can just forget about it.”

Miniaturisation efforts could result in an incredibly sensitive device similar to today's "breathalyser"

Miniaturisation efforts could result in an incredibly sensitive device similar to today’s “breathalyser”

Personalised medicine

The team acquired breath samples from 11 volunteers across four time slots of nine working days.

These samples were run through a mass spectrometer – a device that effectively measures all the masses of the chemical compounds in the breath.

Some, such as water vapour and carbon dioxide, were the same across all participants, but those that differed proved to be unique to individuals – and to stay the same for those individuals throughout the course of the experiments.

In the course of previous work, one of the collaborators’ breath appeared to have one markedly different mass “peak” – which turned out to be connected to epilepsy medication he was taking.

When other patients on the same drug were tested, the same peak was found: a new metabolite of the drug that was subsequently published in the journal Chemical Communications.

It is the non-invasive and immediate nature of the test that makes it most promising.

It could for example help determine an appropriate dosage in anaesthesia, where an effective but safe dose is dependent on a patient’s tolerance and metabolic rate – a small dose could be given to test how it is metabolised. A quick, at-the-starting-line test could be administered to check for doping in sport.

As the tests continue and the stability and uniqueness of each individual’s breathprint is further verified, it could become a staple of the long-predicted “personalised medicine”, tailored to each person’s chemistry.

And the testing equipment – currently a large, laboratory-based system – is likely to be miniature.

For now the team is taking steps toward that goal, working with pulmonologists to detect signs of lung diseases such as asthma, sarcoidosis and cancer in the breath.

“We’re at the onset of learning about what the compounds are. Just a small fraction of the peaks that we see are identified at this point, so there’s a lot of footwork to be done,” Prof Zenobi said.

SOURCE : www.bbc.co.uk

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ตรวจวัดการหายใจ วินิจฉัยได้หลายโรค

ผู้เชี่ยวชาญมักจะแนะนำให้เราหายใจลึกๆ เพื่อระบายความเครียดออกมา แต่บัดนี้หมอชักเห็นดีว่า อาจให้คนไข้หายใจให้ลึกๆ เพื่อตรวจวัดระดับของความเครียดที่กำลังผจญอยู่ออกมาได้

นักวิจัยมหาวิทยาลัยในอังกฤษ ได้ศึกษาพบลักษณะบางอย่างของการหายใจ ที่อาจวัดความเครียดได้ ซึ่งเชื่อว่าจะสามารถนำไปทำเป็นวิธีทดสอบง่ายๆ ที่ไม่ต้องรุกล้ำถึงภายในร่างกาย ในการตรวจวัดความเครียดได้

หัวหน้านักวิจัยกล่าวว่า หากว่าเราสามารถวัดความเครียดอย่างตรงไปตรงมาได้ มันจะเป็นประโยชน์กับคนไข้ และผู้ที่ล่อแหลมกับการเป็นโรคสมองเสื่อม

หมอหลายคนได้ใช้การทดสอบการหายใจของคนไข้ ไปใช้ร่วมในการวินิจฉัยโรคต่างๆ อย่างเช่น วัณโรค โรคปอด มะเร็ง และโรคหืดอยู่แล้ว.

ที่มา:  ไทยรัฐ 8 มีนาคม 2556

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lboro130228_001

Researchers look to breath to identify stress

 

28 February 2013

The perennial stress-buster – a deep breath – could become stress-detector, Loughborough University researchers claim.

According to a new pilot study, published today, 28 February, in IOP Publishing’sJournal of Breath Research, there are six markers in the breath that could be candidates for use as indicators of stress.

The researchers hope that findings such as these could lead to a quick, simple and non-invasive test for measuring stress; however, the study, which involved just 22 subjects, would need to be scaled-up to include more people, over a wider range of ages and in more “normal” settings, before any concrete conclusions can be made, they state.

Lead-author of the study, Loughborough’s Professor Paul Thomas from the Department of Chemistry, said: “If we can measure stress objectively in a non-invasive way, then it may benefit patients and vulnerable people in long-term care who find it difficult to disclose stress responses to their carers, such as those suffering from Alzheimer’s.”

The study, undertaken by researchers at Loughborough University and Imperial College London, involved 22 young adults (10 male and 12 female) who each took part in two sessions: in the first, they were asked to sit comfortably and listen to non-stressful music; in the second, they were asked to perform a common mental arithmetic test that has been designed to induce stress.

A breath test was taken before and after each session, whilst heart-rates and blood pressures were recorded throughout. The breath samples were examined using a technique known as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and then statistically analysed and compared to a library of compounds.

Two compounds in the breath – 2-methyl, pentadecane and indole – increased following the stress exercise which, if confirmed, the researchers believe could form the basis of a rapid test.

A further four compounds were shown to decrease with stress, which could be due to changes in breathing patterns.

“What is clear from this study is that we were not able to discount stress. It seems sensible and prudent to test this work with more people over a range of ages in more normal settings.

“We will need to think carefully about experimental design in order to explore this potential relationship further as there are ethical issues to consider when deliberately placing volunteers under stress. Any follow up study would need to be led by experts in stress,” Professor Thomas continued.

Breath profiling has become an attractive diagnostic method for clinicians and most recently researchers have found biomarkers associated with tuberculosis, multiple cancers, pulmonary disease and asthma. It is still unclear how to best manage external factors, such as diet, environment and exercise, which can affect a person’s breath sample.

“It is possible that stress markers in the breath could mask or confound other key compounds that are used to diagnose a certain disease or condition, so it is important that these are accounted for,” said Professor Thomas.

The researcher’s initial assumptions are that stressed people breathe faster and have increased pulse rates and an elevated blood-pressure, which is likely to change their breath profile. They emphasise, however, that it is too soon to postulate the biological origins and the roles of the compounds as part of a stress-sensitive response.

From 28 February, this paper can be downloaded from http://iopscience.iop.org/1752-7163/7/1/017102

SOURCE : lboro.ac.uk

ตรวจหามะเร็งลำไส้จากลมหายใจของเรา ผู้ป่วยจะมีกลิ่นผิดปกติเกิดจากสารเคมี

Credit : healthland.time.com

Credit : healthland.time.com

นักวิทยาศาสตร์คิดวิธีตรวจสอบโรคมะเร็งลำไส้ จากลมหายใจของเรา ด้วยความแม่นยำสูงถึงร้อยละ 76

นักวิทยาศาสตร์พยายามค้นหาวิธีตรวจสอบลมหายใจ เพื่อหาโรคต่างๆ ตั้งแต่มะเร็ง วัณโรค และเบาหวาน โรคเหล่านี้ยิ่งตรวจพบเร็วเท่าไร โอกาสที่จะหยุดยั้งโรคอย่างมะเร็งก็จะสูง แต่ตามความเป็นจริงแล้ว มักจะหาร่องรอยของโรคยาก จนกว่าจะเป็นกันมากแล้ว

เทคโนโลยีชีววิทยาของมะเร็งนี้ เกิดจากความคิดที่ว่า “สารประกอบอินทรีย์ที่ระเหยได้” ประกอบด้วยสารเคมี ที่ไม่ค่อยมีอยู่ในคนปกติ ซึ่งอาจจะปนอยู่ในลมหายใจคนไข้เพียงเล็กน้อย เคยมีการศึกษาพบว่า สุนัขที่ผ่านการฝึก สามารถดมได้กลิ่น แต่มาในระยะหลังๆ หันไปอาศัยอุปกรณ์อิเล็กทรอนิกส์ ในการวิเคราะห์ก๊าซจากลมหายใจคนแทน

นักวิทยาศาสตร์โรงพยาบาลบาริของอิตาลีหยิบเรื่องนี้มาศึกษาอีก โดยศึกษาลมหายใจของคนไข้โรคมะเร็งลำไส้ เปรียบเทียบกับของคนปกติ ในการทดสอบขั้นแรก พบว่าแม่นยำถึงร้อยละ 85 แต่เมื่อทดสอบซ้ำอีก ผลโดยรวมลดมาเหลือแค่ร้อยละ 76.

 

ที่มา: ไทยรัฐ  10 ธันวาคม 2555

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Breath Test Could Possibly Diagnose Colorectal Cancer

Dec. 5, 2012 — A new study published in the British Journal of Surgery (BJS) has demonstrated for the first time that a simple breath analysis could be used for colorectal cancer screening.

The study is part of the “Improving Outcomes in Gastrointestinal Cancer” supplement.

Cancer tissue has different metabolism compared to normal healthy cells and produces some substances which can be detected in the breath of these patients. Analysis of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) linked to cancer is a new frontier in cancer screening.

Led by Donato F. Altomare, MD, of the Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation at the University Aldo Moro of Bari, researchers collected exhaled breath from 37 patients with colorectal cancer and 41 healthy controls which was processed offline to evaluate the VOC profile. VOCs of interest had been identified and selected, and VOC patterns able to discriminate patients from controls set up.

A probabilistic neural network (PNN) was used to identify the pattern of VOCs that better discriminated between the two groups.

Results showed that patients with colorectal cancer have a different selective VOC pattern compared with healthy controls, based on analysis of 15 of 58 specific compounds in exhaled breath samples.

The PNN in this study was able to discriminate patients with colorectal cancer with an accuracy of over 75%, with the model correctly assigning 19 patients.

“The technique of breath sampling is very easy and non-invasive, although the method is still in the early phase of development,” Altomare notes. “Our study’s findings provide further support for the value of breath testing as a screening tool.”

Story Source:

The above story is reprinted from materials provided byWiley.

Journal Reference:

  1. D. F. Altomare, M. Di Lena, F. Porcelli, L. Trizio, E. Travaglio, M. Tutino, S. Dragonieri, V. Memeo, G. De Gennaro. Exhaled volatile organic compounds identify patients with colorectal cancerBritish Journal of Surgery, 2012; DOI: 10.1002/bjs.8942

SOURCE : sciencedaily.com