เนื้อแดงอันตราย ทำลายหัวใจ

thairath130412_001การกินเนื้อวัวหรือเนื้อลูกแกะที่มีสีคล้ำ ถูกพบว่าอาจเป็นอันตรายกับหัวใจได้ เพราะว่ามีสารประกอบที่อาจเป็นสาเหตุทำให้เกิดโรคหลอดเลือดแดงตีบตันอยู่อย่างอุดม

วารสาร “การแพทย์ธรรมชาติ” ออนไลน์ของสหรัฐฯ รายงานว่า นักวิทยาศาสตร์ได้พบว่า เมื่อกินเนื้อแดงเข้าไปสารประกอบคาร์นิตีนในเนื้อจะถูกแบคทีเรียที่มีอยู่ในลำไส้ย่อยสลาย ทำให้เกิดผลที่ตามมา เกิดไขมันในเลือดสูง จึงเฉียดกรายกับโรคหัวใจสูงขึ้น นักโภชนาการเคยเตือนให้รู้อยู่แล้วว่าการได้สารคาร์นิตีนเป็นอันตราย ทั้งยังมีผลการศึกษาอยู่เป็นกอง เตือนว่าการกินเนื้อแดงประจำจะเป็นภัยแก่สุขภาพ

สารคาร์นิตีนเมื่อถูกย่อยจะกลายเป็นก๊าซ และโดนถูกตับเปลี่ยนให้เป็นสารเคมี ซึ่งถูกพบว่า เกี่ยวพันกับไขมันที่สะสมอยู่ตามหลอดเลือด ที่เป็นเหตุของโรคหัวใจและการเสียชีวิต ดร.สแตนลีย์  ฮาเซน หัวหน้านักวิจัยของคลินิกคลีฟแลนด์ของสหรัฐฯ กล่าวว่า “ผลการค้นพบยืนยันความเห็นที่ว่ายิ่งกินเนื้อแดงน้อยเท่าไร ก็ยิ่งดีเท่านั้น”.

ที่มา : ไทยรัฐ  12 เมษายน  2556

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In a study, meat eaters who ate steak showed a burst of a chemical that increases risk.

In a study, meat eaters who ate steak showed a burst of a chemical that increases risk.

Culprit in Heart Disease Goes Beyond Meat’s Fat

By GINA KOLATA
Published: April 7, 2013

It was breakfast time and the people participating in a study of red meat and its consequences had hot, sizzling sirloin steaks plopped down in front of them. The researcher himself bought a George Foreman grill for the occasion, and the nurse assisting him did the cooking.

For the sake of science, these six men and women ate every last juicy bite of the 8-ounce steaks. Then they waited to have their blood drawn.

Dr. Stanley Hazen of the Cleveland Clinic, who led the study, and his colleagues had accumulated evidence for a surprising new explanation of why red meat may contribute to heart disease. And they were testing it with this early morning experiment.

The researchers had come to believe that what damaged hearts was not just the thick edge of fat on steaks, or the delectable marbling of their tender interiors. In fact, these scientists suspected that saturated fat and cholesterol made only a minor contribution to the increased amount of heart disease seen in red-meat eaters. The real culprit, they proposed, was a little-studied chemical that is burped out by bacteria in the intestines after people eat red meat. It is quickly converted by the liver into yet another little-studied chemical called TMAO that gets into the blood and increases the risk of heart disease.

That, at least, was the theory. So the question that morning was: Would a burst of TMAO show up in people’s blood after they ate steak? And would the same thing happen to a vegan who had not eaten meat for at least a year and who consumed the same meal?

The answers were: yes, there was a TMAO burst in the five meat eaters; and no, the vegan did not have it. And TMAO levels turned out to predict heart attack risk in humans, the researchers found. The researchers also found that TMAO actually caused heart disease in mice. Additional studies with 23 vegetarians and vegans and 51 meat eaters showed that meat eaters normally had more TMAO in their blood and that they, unlike those who spurned meat, readily made TMAO after swallowing pills with carnitine.

“It’s really a beautiful combination of mouse studies and human studies to tell a story I find quite plausible,” said Dr. Daniel J. Rader, a heart disease researcher at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, who was not involved in the research.

Researchers say the work could lead to new treatments for heart disease — perhaps even an antibiotic to specifically wipe out the bacterial culprit — and also to a new way to assess heart disease risk by looking for TMAO in the blood.

Of course, critical questions remain. Would people reduce their heart attack risk if they lowered their blood TMAO levels? An association between TMAO levels in the blood and heart disease risk does not necessarily mean that one causes the other. And which gut bacteria in particular are the culprits?

There also are questions about the safety of supplements, like energy drinks and those used in body building. Such supplements often contain carnitine, a substance found mostly in red meat.

But the investigators’ extensive experiments in both humans and animals, published Sunday in Nature Medicine, have persuaded scientists not connected with the study to seriously consider this new theory of why red meat eaten too often might be bad for people.

Dr. Frank Sacks, a professor of cardiovascular disease prevention at the Harvard School of Public Health, called the findings impressive. “I don’t have any reason to doubt it,” he said, “but it is kind of amazing.”

Lora Hooper, an associate professor of immunology and microbiology at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, who follows the Paleo diet, heavy on meat, exclaimed, “Yikes!”

The study does not mean that red meat is entirely bad or that it is best to avoid it entirely, said Dr. Hazen, the lead researcher. Dr. Hazen is the chairman of the department of cellular and molecular medicine at the Lerner Research Institute of the Cleveland Clinic, a nonprofit academic medical center. Meat contains protein, for example, and B vitamins, which are both essential for health. But the study’s findings indicated that the often-noticed association between red meat consumption and heart disease risk might be related to more than just the saturated fat and cholesterol in red meats like beef and pork.

Dr. Hazen began his research five years ago with a scientific fishing expedition. He directs a study of patients who come to the Cleveland Clinic for evaluations. Over the years, there have been 10,000. All were at risk for heart disease and agreed to provide blood samples and to be followed so the researchers would know if any patient had a heart attack or died of heart disease in the three years after the first visit. Those samples enabled him to look for small molecules in the blood to see whether any were associated with heart attacks or deaths.

That study and a series of additional experiments led to the discovery that a red meat substance no one had suspected — carnitine — seemed to be a culprit. Carnitine is found in red meat and gets its name from the Latin word carnis, the root of carnivore, Dr. Hazen said. It is also found in other foods, he noted, including fish and chicken and even dairy products, but in smaller amounts. Red meat, he said, is the major source, and for many people who eat a lot of red meat, it may be a concern.

The researchers found that carnitine was not dangerous by itself. Instead, the problem arose when it was metabolized by bacteria in the intestines and ended up as TMAO in the blood.

That led to the steak-eating study. It turned out that within a couple of hours of a regular meat-eater having a steak, TMAO levels in the blood soared.

But the outcome was quite different when a vegan ate a steak. Researchers had hypothesized that vegans would not have as many of the gut bacteria needed to make TMAO, and indeed virtually no TMAO appeared in the vegan’s blood after he consumed a steak.

“We did not expect to see such a dramatic difference,” Dr. Hazen said.

Then researchers gave meat eaters doses of antibiotics to wipe out almost all of their gut bacteria. After that, they no longer had TMAO in their blood either after consuming red meat or carnitine pills. That meant, he said, that the effect really was because of gut bacteria.

Researchers then tried to determine whether people with high blood carnitine or TMAO levels were at higher heart disease risk. They analyzed blood from more than 2,500 people, asking if carnitine or TMAO levels predicted heart attacks independently of traditional risk factors like smoking, high cholesterol and blood pressure. Both carnitine and TMAO did. But upon further analysis, they discovered that the effect was solely because of TMAO.

The researchers’ theory, based on their laboratory studies, is that TMAO enables cholesterol to get into artery walls and also prevents the body from excreting excess cholesterol.

But what is it about carnitine that bacteria like? The answer, Dr. Hazen said, is that bacteria use it as a fuel.

He said he worries about carnitine-containing energy drinks. Carnitine often is added to the drinks on the assumption that is will speed fat metabolism and increase a person’s energy level, Dr. Hazen said.

Dr. Robert H. Eckel, a professor of medicine at the University of Colorado and a past president of the American Heart Association, worried about how carnitine might be affecting body builders and athletes who often take it because they believe it builds muscle.

Those supplements, Dr. Hazen said, “are scary, especially for our kids.”

Dr. Hazen, though, has taken his findings to heart. He used to eat red meat several times a week, about 12 ounces at a time. Now, he said, he eats it once every two weeks and has no more than 4 to 6 ounces at a time.

“I am not a vegan,” Dr. Hazen said. “I like a good steak.”

SOURCE : nytimes.com

ศีรษะล้านบอกลาง โรคหัวใจให้รู้ตัว

thairath130409_001วารสาร “การแพทย์อังกฤษ” เปิดเผยว่า นักวิจัยอังกฤษค้นพบว่า ลักษณะศีรษะล้านของบุรุษบางแบบเกี่ยวพันกับความเสี่ยงของการเป็นโรคหัวใจชนิดเส้นเลือดมาเลี้ยงหัวใจอุดตันสูง  ผู้ที่ศีรษะล้านเกือบทั้งหัว เสี่ยงสูงกับโรคมากกว่าผู้ที่ผมดกปกติถึงร้อยละ 32

ผู้เชี่ยวชาญยังพบว่า ผู้ที่ศีรษะตรงกระหม่อมล้านบาง จะเสี่ยงต่อโรคมากที่สุด ยิ่งกว่าผู้ที่ศีรษะค่อยเถิกขึ้นไป และผู้ที่ศีรษะล้านกลางกระหม่อมจะเสี่ยงโรคมากกว่าเพื่อนที่ล้านแบบหัวเถิก

การศึกษาทำโดยวิเคราะห์รายงานผลการศึกษาในเรื่องนี้ ที่ทำมาทั้งหมด กับผู้ชายที่มีอายุไม่เกิน 55 ปี ได้สรุปว่า ผู้ชายที่ศีรษะล้าน จะเสี่ยงกับการเป็นโรคหัวใจร้อยละ 70 และยิ่งในกลุ่มที่อายุน้อยกว่านั้น จะเป็นง่ายยิ่งขึ้นถึงร้อยละ 84

พวกเขายังได้ค้นหามูลเหตุที่ปรากฏอยู่อย่างกว้างขวาง  อาจจะเป็นเพราะอาการดื้อกับอินซูลิน อันเป็นอาการแรกของเบาหวาน ไม่ก็จากการอักเสบเรื้อรัง หรือสภาพอ่อนไหวต่อฮอร์โมนเทสโตสเตอโรนเพศชาย ซึ่งเกี่ยวพันไม่โดยตรงก็โดยอ้อมกับโรคหัวใจทั้งสิ้น.

ที่มา : ไทยรัฐ 9 เมษายน 2556

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Credit : amog.com

Credit : amog.com

Balding on the crown linked to heart disease

“Men with a bald pate are at significantly greater risk of heart disease than their less follicly challenged peers,” reports The Daily Telegraph. There are similar headlines across much of the media.

The headlines refer to research into an association between baldness and coronary heart disease. The researchers estimate that the risk of developing coronary heart disease over 10 years or more is 32% higher in bald men compared with those with a full head of hair.

This study can’t reveal what causes the link between baldness and risk of coronary heart disease, it can only tell us that the two are linked.

Men concerned by these headlines should not lose sleep – or any more hair – over it. There isn’t much men can do about balding, but there are plenty of ways to reduce risk of heart disease. The quote from the British Heart Foundation that appears in most media reports is particularly apt: “it’s more important to pay attention to your waist line than your hairline”.

Where did the story come from?

The study was carried out by researchers from the University of Tokyo and was carried out without any external funding. It was published in the open-access peer-reviewed BMJ Open.

This report was generally covered appropriately by the media, with most reporting that even the significant associations were modest compared with the increases seen with well established risk factors. However, the Daily Mail headline that “losing your hair before your 50s can almost double the risk of heart attack” is not an accurate reflection of the research. First, the studies examined more than just heart attacks and, second, the increase in risk for men under 55 or 60 ranged from 44% to 84%, which is not a doubling.

The Guardian should be commended for quoting an independent statistician, Professor David Spiegelhalter, who cautions readers about the difficulties of concluding that balding causes heart disease (or vice versa).

What kind of research was this?

This was a meta-analysis of observational studies that estimated the association between male pattern baldness (or androgenetic alopecia) and coronary heart disease (CHD). The authors report that several studies have identified an association between these two factors, and this research sought to combine the results from multiple studies to establish the overall risk.

CHD is the most common cause of death among men in the UK. In CHD the arteries that pump blood to the heart become narrow. This narrowing occurs when fatty material builds up within the artery walls. If the arteries become too narrow, the heart does not receive enough oxygen-rich blood, which causes chest pain known as angina. This narrowing can escalate to the point that the artery is blocked, which can cause a heart attack, where the lack of oxygen-rich blood causes permanent damage to the heart.

As this was a meta-analysis of observational studies, it can only provide information on the association between baldness and CHD, and cannot say why they are associated or if one causes the other.

What did the research involve?

Researchers searched databases for observational studies related to baldness and CHD. Two types of studies were eventually included in the review – cohort studies and case-control studies.

Studies were excluded from the review if they assessed a type of hair loss other than male pattern baldness. CHD was defined by the researchers as including coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction (heart attack), angina pectoris, cardiomyopathy and other types of ischaemic heart disease.

The researchers extracted and combined data from the identified studies, and came up with a pooled risk estimate. This provided an overall measure for the relative increase in risk of CHD among bald men, compared with men who were not balding. This analysis took into account (controlled for) some known risk factors for CHD, including:

  • age
  • smoking status
  • family history of the condition

The results of all of the analyses were reported as relative risks. This is unusual, because the results of case-control studies are usually reported as odds ratios. It is difficult to see from the scientific paper how the relative risks for these case-control studies were calculated.

The researchers did a subgroup analysis to assess the association between baldness and CHD among younger men (under 55 or 60 years old). They also conducted separate analysis among the subset of studies that reported on baldness severity (see box) to determine if the risk of CHD changed with the extent of balding.

What were the basic results?

The researchers identified 850 studies that potentially met their criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. After reviewing these studies, six remained that met all inclusion criteria. These six studies were conducted in the United States, Denmark and Croatia, and published between 1993 and 2008. They included a total of 36,990 participants. Three were cohort studies with a mean follow-up time ranging from 11 to 14 years.

Among the three cohort studies there was a significant increase in risk of CHD among men with severe baldness compared with men without baldness (relative risk (RR) 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08 to 1.63). When the analysis was restricted to men younger than 60 years old, a similar risk increase was seen (RR 1.44, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.86).

Among the three case-control studies, the authors report a significant association between baldness and CHD, both overall (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.74) and among younger participants (1.84, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.62).

Three studies reportedly assessed the severity of baldness, two were case-control studies and one was a cohort study. This analysis found that the association between baldness and CHD varied according to baldness severity, and was only significant among men with mild to severe balding on the crown of the head, with no significant association seen among men with only frontal balding.

How did the researchers interpret the results?

The researchers concluded that baldness on the crown of the head was significantly associated with an increased risk of CHD, and that this association increased with increasing baldness severity. However, just having a receding hairline presented no increase in risk. The researchers concluded that the known CHD risk factors should be carefully assessed among men with vertex baldness.

Conclusion

This meta-analysis suggests that there is an association between balding on the crown of the head and coronary heart disease, and that this holds true even among younger men. However, there are several limitations to the study that should be taken into consideration when interpreting this association.

On the one hand, the analysis included a large pooled sample size (with nearly 40,000 participants). However, only six studies in total were included, and each analysis included just three unique studies. The studies differed in the manner in which baldness was assessed, and the types of CHD included in each study. These variations in the way baldness and CHD were measured may make it difficult to compare the results of the different studies.

It’s also worth noting that cohort studies and case-control studies are often subject to bias and confounding, and that these problems remain when the results of several studies are combined.

It should also be noted that these studies can only assess the association between baldness and CHD, and cannot help explain what causes the association, although most of the press used the news to speculate that both may be caused by testosterone, diabetes or ‘chronic inflammation’.

Statistically speaking, this study is also limited because the pooled results for the case-control studies were reported as relative risks and not odds ratios (which is the more appropriate measure). It is not clear how the researchers converted from one measure to the other. Additionally, converting an odds ratio to a relative risk can overestimate risk if the outcome is common (in this review the outcome was CHD, which is relatively common).

Perhaps most importantly, baldness is not something you can do much about, even if the results of this meta-analysis are confirmed. Making lifestyle changes is a more effective way of reducing risk of CHD. These include:

  • quitting smoking if you smoke
  • losing weight if you are overweight or obese
  • increasing the amount of physical activity you do

Analysis by Bazian. Edited by NHS Choices. Follow Behind the Headlines on Twitter.

Links to the headlines

The bald facts: hair loss could be the first sign you have heart disease. The Independent, 3 April 2013

Bald men at greater heart disease risk. The Daily Telegraph, 3 April 2013

Bald truth about heart disease. Daily Express, 3 April 2013

Bad news for baldies: Losing your hair before your 50s can almost DOUBLE the risk of heart attack. Daily Mail, 3 April 2013

Male baldness linked to risk of coronary heart disease, research claims. The Guardian, 3 April 2013

Male baldness ‘indicates heart risk’. BBC News, 3 April 2013

Links to the science

Yamada T, Hara K, Umematsu H and Kadowaki T. Male pattern baldness and its association with coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis. BMJ Open. Published 3 April 2013

SOURCE : www.nhs.uk

กินเนื้อสำเร็จรูป เสี่ยงตายก่อนวัย

thairath130318_001aการศึกษาติดตามชีวิตความเป็นอยู่ของผู้คนทั่วยุโรปเรือนครึ่งล้าน ทำให้น่าวิตกว่า การกินอาหารเนื้อสำเร็จรูป  อย่างไส้กรอก  แฮม เบคอนและอื่นๆ จะทำให้เฉียดใกล้กับการเสียชีวิตก่อนวัยอันควร

เป็นที่ลงความเห็นกันมาก่อนหน้าแล้วว่า การกินอาหารเหล่านี้มากๆ เกี่ยวเนื่องกันกับโรคหัวใจและหลอดเลือด โรคมะเร็งและการเสียชีวิตก่อนวัยอันควร นักวิจัยเชื่อว่า เพราะสารเคมีและเกลือที่ใช้ในการเก็บรักษาเนื้อเป็นภัยต่อสุขภาพ  ขณะเดียวกันมูลนิธิโรคหัวใจแห่งอังกฤษ ได้แนะนำว่า ให้กินส่วนของเนื้อที่ไม่ติดมันแทน

วารสาร “การแพทย์บีเอ็มซี”ของอังกฤษรายงานว่า การศึกษายังได้พบว่า ผู้ที่ชอบกินอาหารแบบนี้ มักจะเป็นผู้สูบบุหรี่ อ้วนเกิน และชอบทำเรื่องที่เป็นการทำลายสุขภาพตนเอง

ผู้ที่ชอบกินอาหารพวกนี้มากถึงวันละ 160 กรัม ขนาดไส้กรอก 2 ท่อนกับเบคอนอีกชิ้นหนึ่ง จะเสี่ยงกับการเสียชีวิตขึ้น ในระหว่างช่วงเวลาของการศึกษานาน 12.7 ปี ยิ่งกว่าผู้ที่กินเพียงวันละ 20 กรัม ร้อยละ 44.

ที่มา :  ไทยรัฐ 18 มีนาคม 2556

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bbc130307_001a

Processed meat ‘early death’ link

By James GallagherHealth and science reporter, BBC News

7 March 2013

Sausages, ham, bacon and other processed meats appear to increase the risk of dying young, a study of half a million people across Europe suggests.

It concluded diets high in processed meats were linked to cardiovascular disease, cancer and early deaths.

The researchers, writing in the journal BMC Medicine, said salt and chemicals used to preserve the meat may damage health.

The British Heart Foundation suggested opting for leaner cuts of meat.

The study followed people from 10 European countries for nearly 13 years on average.

Lifestyle factors

It showed people who ate a lot of processed meat were also more likely to smoke, be obese and have other behaviours known to damage health.

However, the researchers said even after those risk factors were accounted for, processed meat still damaged health.

One in every 17 people followed in the study died. However, those eating more than 160g of processed meat a day – roughly two sausages and a slice of bacon – were 44% more likely to die over a typical follow-up time of 12.7 years than those eating about 20g.

In total, nearly 10,000 people died from cancer and 5,500 from heart problems.

bbc130307_001b

Prof Sabine Rohrmann, from the University of Zurich, told the BBC: “High meat consumption, especially processed meat, is associated with a less healthy lifestyle.

“But after adjusting for smoking, obesity and other confounders we think there is a risk of eating processed meat.

“Stopping smoking is more important than cutting meat, but I would recommend people reduce their meat intake.”

Health benefits

She said if everyone in the study consumed no more than 20g of processed meat a day then 3% of the premature deaths could have been prevented.

The UK government recommends eating no more than 70g of red or processed meat – two slices of bacon – a day.

A spokesperson said: “People who eat a lot of red and processed meat should consider cutting down.”

However a little bit of meat, even processed meat, had health benefits in the study.

Ursula Arens from the British Dietetic Association told BBC Radio 4’s Today programme that putting fresh meat through a mincer did not make it processed meat.

“Something has been done to it to extend its shelf life, or to change its taste, or to make it more palatable in some way… and this could be a traditional process like curing or salting.”

She said even good quality ham or sausages were still classed as processed meat, while homemade burgers using fresh meat were not.

“For most people there’s no need to cut back on fresh, red meat. For people who have very high intake of red meat – eat lots of red meat every day – there is the recommendation that they should moderate their intake,” she added.

Ms Arens also confirmed that the study’s finding that processed meat was linked to heart disease was new.

Mr Roger Leicester, a consultant surgeon and a member of the Meat Advisory Panel, said: “I would agree people should eat small quantities of processed meat.”

However, he said there needed to be a focus on how meat was processed: “We need to know what the preservatives are, what the salt content is, what the meat content is…meat is actually an essential part of our diet.”

Growing evidence

Dr Rachel Thompson, from the World Cancer Research Fund, said: “This research adds to the body of scientific evidence highlighting the health risks of eating processed meat.

“Our research, published in 2007 and subsequently confirmed in 2011, shows strong evidence that eating processed meat, such as bacon, ham, hot dogs, salami and some sausages, increases the risk of getting bowel cancer.”

The organisation said there would be 4,000 fewer cases of bowel cancer if people had less than 10g a day.

“This is why World Cancer Research Fund recommends people avoid processed meat,” said Dr Thompson.

Tracy Parker, a heart health dietitian with the British Heart Foundation, said the research suggested processed meat might be linked to an increased risk of early death, but those who ate more of it in the study also made “other unhealthy lifestyle choices”.

“They were found to eat less fruit and vegetables and were more likely to smoke, which may have had an impact on results.

“Red meat can still be enjoyed as part of a balanced diet.

“Opting for leaner cuts and using healthier cooking methods such as grilling will help to keep your heart healthy.

“If you eat lots of processed meat, try to vary your diet with other protein choices such as chicken, fish, beans or lentils.”

SOURCE : bbc.co.uk

หยุดสูบบุหรี่ สงวนชีวีไว้

Credit : quitsmokingstuff.com

Credit : quitsmokingstuff.com

วารสารแพทยสมาคมอเมริกัน รายงานว่า การเลิกสูบบุหรี่อาจจะช่วยรักษาชีวิตของตนเองไว้ได้จากโรคหัวใจ  แม้ว่ามันจะทำให้อ้วนขึ้นก็ตาม

ผู้ที่หยุดสูบบุหรี่ ถ้าหากไม่ได้เป็นเบาหวานอยู่ด้วย จะเห็นผลทันตาเกือบทุกราย และแม้แต่ผู้ที่เป็นโรคเรื้อรังนี้ ก็ยังพอได้คุณอยู่บ้าง

ความอ้วนเป็นสาเหตุใหญ่ของโรคหัวใจอย่างหนึ่ง เคยมีการวิจัยมาแล้วว่า ความอ้วนได้ไปหักลบกลบทับคุณประโยชน์ของการเลิกบุหรี่ลง

รายงานผลการศึกษาความเกี่ยวพันของการสูบบุหรี่กับสุขภาพหัวใจของคน 3,000 กว่าคนพบว่า คอยาที่เลิกสูบบุหรี่มาได้นานไม่ต่ำกว่า 4 ปี จะลดความเสี่ยงกับโรคหัวใจและหลอดเลือดลงได้ร้อยละ 54 ไม่ว่าจะมีน้ำหนักตัวเพิ่มหรือไม่ก็ตาม

ดร.เจมส์ เมกส์ แห่งโรงเรียนแพทย์ฮาร์วาร์ด บอกไว้ว่า “เราสามารถพูดได้โดยไม่ต้องสงสัยเลยว่า การเลิกสูบบุหรี่จะช่วยลดความเสี่ยงกับโรคหัวใจและหลอดเลือดลง ไม่ว่าจะเป็นโรคเบาหวานหรือไม่ก็ตาม แม้มันอาจทำให้น้ำหนักตัวเพิ่มขึ้นปานกลางได้”.

ที่มา :  ไทยรัฐ 21 มีนาคม 2556

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People are sometimes reluctant to give up smoking because of fears of gaining weight, researchers say

People are sometimes reluctant to give up smoking because of fears of gaining weight, researchers say

Quitting smoking ‘cuts heart risk despite weight gain’

BBC 13 March 2013

Stopping smoking cuts the risk of heart disease even if it leads to significant weight gain, a US study says.

Researchers writing in the Journal of the American Medical Association say the prospect of weight gain makes some smokers reluctant to stop.

But they say quitting has a “positive effect on cardiovascular risk”.

The health gains from giving up were most marked in people who did not have diabetes, but people with the condition were still said to have benefited.


If you’re keen to quit smoking but worried about putting on weight, using smoking cessation aids such as inhalators, gum, or lozenges may help you resist the temptation to reach for comfort food in the place of a cigarette”

Doireann Maddock of the British Heart Association

 

Obesity is a risk factor in heart disease, leading past research to examine whether weight gain might cancel out some of the benefits of quitting smoking.

Studies suggest people who stop smoking gain on average 6-13lb (2.7-5.9kg) over the first six months.

The JAMA research looked at the smoking habits and heart health of more than 3,000 people between 1981 and 2011.

Former smokers who had stayed away from tobacco for more than four years had a 54% lower risk of heart and artery disease than smokers.

Recent quitters who had stopped smoking for up to four years experienced almost the same benefit with a 53% lower relative risk.

This was despite recent quitters typically gaining 5-10lb over a period of four years, and long-term quitters 1-2lb.

Dr James Meigs, one of the authors of the study at Harvard Medical School, said: “We can now say without question that stopping smoking has a very positive effect on cardiovascular risk for patients with and without diabetes, even if they experience moderate weight gain.”

Doireann Maddock, senior cardiac nurse at the British Heart Foundation said weight gain should not deter smokers from quitting.

“If you’re keen to quit smoking but worried about putting on weight, using smoking cessation aids such as inhalators, gum, or lozenges may help you resist the temptation to reach for comfort food in the place of a cigarette.”

SOURCE :www.bbc.co.uk

 

อดนอนร่างกายวิปริต ยีนต่าง ๆ ทำงานรวน

Studies have also shown a lack of sleep can lead to cognitive impairment Photo: Alamy

Studies have also shown a lack of sleep can lead to cognitive impairment Photo: Alamy

นักวิจัยอังกฤษค้นพบว่า การอดหลับอดนอนติดๆกันหลายวัน จะทำให้การทำงานในร่างกายมนุษย์เกิดการแปรปรวนขึ้น  ยีนเป็นร้อยๆ ปฏิบัติหน้าที่กันอย่างระส่ำระสาย

พวกเขาได้เปิดเผยในวารสาร “สมาคมวิทยาศาสตร์แห่งชาติ” ของสหรัฐฯว่า การนอนไม่พอ ทำให้สุขภาพเสื่อมโทรม เหตุที่เป็นโรคหัวใจ เบาหวาน โรคอ้วนและสมองทึบ ล้วนแต่เกี่ยวกับการอดนอนทั้งสิ้น

นักวิจัยของมหาวิทยาลัยเซอเรย์ได้ศึกษากับ กลุ่มคนที่ได้นอนอย่างเต็มอิ่มวันละ 10 ชม. ทั้งอาทิตย์ เปรียบเทียบกับคนอีกกลุ่มหนึ่งที่ได้หลับนอนวันละไม่ถึง 6 ชม. โดยตรวจเลือดดูด้วย ได้พบว่ามียีนที่มีหน้าที่สร้างโปรตีนไม่ต่ำกว่า 700 ตัวถูกกระทบ กระเทือน อีกทั้งนาฬิกาชีวภาพในตัว ก็พลอยสับสน

ศาสตราจารย์โคลิน สมิธ หัวหน้านักวิจัย กล่าวว่า การนอนไม่พอ ทำให้การทำงานของยีนหลายประเภทเปลี่ยนแปร โดยเฉพาะส่วนที่เกี่ยวกับระบบภูมิคุ้มกันโรค และการซ่อมแซมความสึกหรอของร่างกาย เห็นได้ชัดว่า การนอนหลับสนิท เป็นสิ่งจำเป็นกับการซ่อมแซม และคงภาวะการทำงานปกติของร่างกาย ความเสียหายที่ปรากฏ แสดงให้เห็นว่าจะเป็นเหตุให้สุขภาพเสื่อมโทรม.

ที่มา:  ไทยรัฐ 4 มีนาคม 2556

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Lack of sleep ‘switches off’ genes

One week of bad sleep can “switch off” hundreds of genes and raise the risk of a host of illnesses including obesity and heart disease, scientists claim.

By Nick Collins, Science Correspondent  25 Feb 2013

 

Getting fewer than six hours’ sleep per night deactivates genes which play a key role in the body’s constant process of self-repair and replenishment, according to a new study.

Our bodies depend on genes to produce a constant supply of proteins which are used to replace or repair damaged tissue, but after a week of sleep deprivation some of these stopped working.

The findings suggest that chronic lack of sleep could prevent the body from fully replenishing itself and raise the risk of a host of diseases, researchers said.

Scientists from Surrey University divided 26 volunteers into two groups, one of which slept for less than six hours per night for an entire week, and one which slept for ten hours per night.

At the end of the week each group was kept awake for 40 hours and donated blood samples, which were studied to examine the effects of their sleep regimes.

The week of sleep deprivation was found to have altered the function of 711 genes, including some involved in metabolism, inflammation, immunity and stress.

Inadequate sleep also interfered with genes which are designed to become more or less active at certain points in the day, by throwing off the body’s 24-hour internal clock.

Although a week’s normal sleep was enough to restore the affected genes to their normal pattern, researchers said that prolonged periods of sleeplessness could lead to serious health problems including obesity and heart disease.

Studies have also shown a lack of sleep can lead to cognitive impairment, for example limiting our ability to drive a car safely.

Prof Colin Smith, one of the authors of the new paper, which was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciencesjournal, said: “This is only a week of sleep restriction and it is only five and a half or six hours a night. Many people have that amount of sleep for weeks, months and maybe even years so we have no idea how much worse it might be.

“If these processes continue to be disrupted, you could see how you are going to get impairment of organs, tissues, heart disease, obesity, diabetes. If you are not able to replenish cells and tissues that are damaged then you are going to suffer permanent ill health.”

SOURCE : telegraph.co.uk

 

 

ไม่อยากหูตึง แนะดื่มไวน์แดง

ผลวิจัยโชว์สารที่พบในไวน์แดง ใช่จะดีแค่ป้องกันโรคหัวใจ ยังช่วยป้องกันไม่ให้สูญเสียการได้ยินด้วย

ผลวิจัยโชว์สารที่พบในไวน์แดง ใช่จะดีแค่ป้องกันโรคหัวใจ ยังช่วยป้องกันไม่ให้สูญเสียการได้ยินด้วย

นานมาแล้ว เรารับรู้กันว่า การดื่มไวน์แดงในปริมาณที่เหมาะสม หรือประมาณ 1 แก้วต่อวัน สามารถลดความเสี่ยงการเกิดโรคหัวใจและโรคสมองเสื่อมได้ ล่าสุด มีผลวิจัยหนึ่งที่ขอเพิ่มเติมประโยชน์จากการดื่มไวน์แดงไปอีกข้อ เนื่องจากทำการศึกษาพบว่า ไวน์แดงมีส่วนช่วยป้องกันการสูญเสียการได้ยิน

การศึกษานี้เป็นของทีมวิจัยจากมหาวิทยาลัยเฮนรี ฟอร์ด ในเมืองดีทรอยด์ สหรัฐ ทำการทดลองกับหนูในห้องแล็บ โดยให้สารเรสเวอราทรอล (Resveratrol) ซึ่งสารนี้พบได้ในองุ่นแดงและไวน์แดง จากนั้นจึงเปิดเสียงดังอึกทึกคึกโคมเป็นระยะเวลานานให้หนูฟัง เพราะโดยหลักการแล้ว ถือว่าเสียงอันดังนั้นมีส่วนทำให้ประสิทธิภาพการได้ยินลดลง

หลังการทดลองผ่านไป ทีมวิจัยพบว่า การให้สารเรสเวอราทรอล ส่งผลให้หนูทดลองเหล่านั้นมีประสิทธิภาพในการได้ยินไม่ลดลง แม้จะผ่านสภาพแวดล้อมที่มีเสียงอันดังมานานก็ตาม โดยหัวหน้าทีมวิจัยอธิบายเพิ่มเติมว่า การศึกษาครั้งนี้ มุ่งเน้นไปที่ตัวสารดังกล่าวและผลการตอบสนองของร่างกายเมื่อได้รับบาดเจ็บ หรือถูกรบกวนให้เกิดความเสื่อม

สำหรับสารเรสเวอราทรอลนั้น จัดเป็นสารที่มีประสิทธิภาพมาก เพราะตามคำกล่าวอ้างของทีมวิจัยชี้ว่า สารนี้อาจช่วยป้องกันการอักเสบของร่างกาย ชะลอความเสื่อมตามวัย ตลอดจนการทำงานของสมอง และการสูญเสียการได้ยิน

หากอนาคตมีการทดลองอย่างต่อเนื่อง หรือมีการนำมาทดลองกับคนอย่างปลอดภัย เราอาจมีตัวช่วยป้องกันหูตึง หูหนวก ซึ่งถือเป็นปัญหาสุขภาพที่มักเกิดขึ้นเมื่อเข้าสู่วัย 60 ปี ทั้งนี้ในปัจจุบัน ผู้คนวัย 40-50 ปี จำนวนไม่น้อย เริ่มประสบปัญหาสูญเสียการได้ยินแล้ว.

ทีมเดลินิวส์ออนไลน์
takecareDD@gmail.com

ที่มา : เดลินิวส์ 25 กุมภาพันธ์ 2556

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Resveratrol, a chemical found in red grapes and red wine, may protect against hearing loss

Resveratrol, a chemical found in red grapes and red wine, may protect against hearing loss

Red wine isn’t just good for your heart – now experts say it may even prevent HEARING LOSS   

  • Thought that resveratrol, the chemical found in red grapes and red wine, has a protective effect
  • Appears to reduce the damage caused by loud noise

By ANNA HODGEKISS

PUBLISHED: 18:40 GMT, 21 February 2013

 

It has long been touted as the tipple with a host of health benefits, said to protect against conditions such as heart disease and dementia.

Now scientists say red wine may also protect against hearing loss, too.

It’s thought that the chemical resveratrol, found in red grapes and red wine, is the reason why.

This is the same compound that has been linked with other positive health benefits such as preventing cancer and heart disease.

In a study conducted at the Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, healthy rats were less likely to suffer noise-induced hearing loss when given resveratrol before being exposed to loud noise for a long period of time.
Study leader Dr Michael Seidman said: ‘Our latest study focuses on resveratrol and its effect on the body’s response to injury – something that is believed to be the cause of many health problems including Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, ageing and hearing loss.

‘Resveratrol is a very powerful chemical that seems to protect against the body’s inflammatory process, as it relates to ageing, cognition [brain function] and hearing loss.’

Hearing loss affects half of people over the age of 60, but many begin to suffer problems in their 40s or 50s.

It usually sets in with the death of tiny ‘hair’ cells in the inner ear as a result of ageing.

The study found that resveratrol reduced noise-induced hearing loss in rats exposed to potentially deafening sounds.

Dr Seidman said: ‘We’ve shown that by giving animals resveratrol, we can reduce the amount of hearing and cognitive decline.’

The study is published in the journal Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery.

Last month, scientists from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem reported that washing down red meat with a glass of red can actually prevent the build-up of cholesterol in the body.

The researchers, from the  found that after eating red or dark meat, compounds called malondialdehyde accumulate in the blood stream.

These can help to form the type of cholesterol that can raise the risk of heart disease.

Meanwhile drinking a large glass of red wine every day could help prevent bowel cancer, Leicester University researchers said recently.

SOURCE: dailymail.co.uk

เป็นชายอย่าไปเสี่ยงโด๊ป แคลเซียม

Calcium supplements may be harmful to men's hearts, according to a new study.(Photo: Sean Dougherty, USA TODAY)

Calcium supplements may be harmful to men’s hearts, according to a new study.
(Photo: Sean Dougherty, USA TODAY)

สถานการแพทย์สิ่งแวดล้อมของสวีเดน กล่าวเตือนว่า ผู้ชายที่บำรุงร่างกายด้วยการกินแคลเซียม ทำให้ตนเองต้องตกอยู่ใต้อันตรายของการเสียชีวิตด้วยโรคหัวใจและหลอดเลือดมากกว่าปกติขึ้นอีกเกือบร้อยละ 20

ผู้ช่วยศาสตราจารย์ซูซานนา ลาร์สสัน เปิดเผยว่า “ได้หลักฐานเพิ่มเติมส่อว่า การกินแคลเซียมมากเกินไป จะยิ่งทำให้เสี่ยงกับโรคยิ่งขึ้น”

นักวิจัยของสถาบันโรคมะเร็งแห่งชาติสหรัฐฯ ได้รวบรวมข้อมูลจากชายหญิง อายุระหว่าง 50-71 ปี จำนวน 388,000 คน ได้ผลว่า ผู้ชายที่กินแคลเซียมวันละ 1,000 มิลลิกรัม จะเสี่ยงกับโรคหัวใจมากขึ้นร้อยละ 20 ทั้งยังจะเสี่ยงกับการเสียชีวิตด้วยโรคลมอัมพาตมากขึ้นอีกร้อยละ 14 ด้วย
อย่างไรก็ตาม  ผลการค้นพบนี้ ไม่ได้เกี่ยวข้องกับสตรี และการได้แคลเซียมจากการกินอาหาร  ก็ไม่เป็นโทษภัยแต่อย่างใด.

ที่มา :  ไทยรัฐ 11 กุมภาพันธ์ 2556

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Calcium supplements may be bad for a man’s heart

Nanci Hellmich, USA TODAY   February 4, 2013

In study, men who were consuming more than 1,000 milligrams a day of calcium from supplements at the beginning of the 12-year study had an increased risk of death from heart disease at the end of the study.

Guys, take note: Popping large amounts of calcium supplements may be harmful to your heart.

Research out today shows that a high intake of calcium from supplements is correlated with an increased risk of death from heart disease, such as heart attacks, for men, but not for women. This does not apply to calcium-rich foods.

The findings come at a time when many older people are taking calcium supplements for bone health. A recent study showed that 50% of older men and 70% of older women in the U.S. use calcium supplements.

Researchers with the National Cancer Institute and several other large research establishments reviewed data on more than 388,000 people, ages 50 to 71, who were part of a diet and health study in six states and two metropolitan areas from 1995 to 1996. The participants were followed for 12 years.

Compared with non-users, men who were consuming more than 1,000 milligrams a day of calcium from supplements at the beginning of the study had an increased risk of death from heart disease by the end of the study, according to findings published online in JAMA Internal Medicine.

“In this large, prospective study we found that supplemental but not dietary calcium intake was associated with an increased cardiovascular disease mortality in men but not in women,” the authors write in the paper.

“Our study is based on observation — it is not designed to determine cause and effect,” says the study’s lead author Qian Xiao of the National Cancer Institute.

“Although we observed an increased risk of death from heart disease in men, we cannot say for sure that it was a result of using supplements containing calcium,” she says. “We need more studies to clarify this possible relationship and the underlying mechanisms.”

The study only assessed calcium supplementation at the start of the study, so researchers don’t know how long participants used them. “However, the large size of our study, and the long-term follow-up, allowed us to investigate the relationship between calcium intake and cardiovascular death, while being able to control for other factors,” Xiao says.

Taylor Wallace, senior director of scientific and regulatory affairs for the Council for Responsible Nutrition, an industry group, questions the methodology of the study and says it “conflicts with the majority of well-established evidence on the safety and benefits of calcium supplementation. Calcium supplements are beneficial to bone health and pose no risk to cardiovascular health.”

Endocrinologist Bess Dawson-Hughes, director of the Bone Metabolism Laboratory at the USDA’s Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University in Boston, says the take-home message for the public is there may be risks to taking high doses of calcium.

“But there is nothing suggesting risks from consuming calcium from food sources, so we should try to the greatest extent possible to reach the recommended intake of calcium from foods — 700 to 1,300 milligrams, depending on ages and gender,” she says.

To get this amount of calcium in food, children and adults would need to consume about three servings a day of calcium-rich foods such as dairy foods (low-fat milk, non-fat milk, low-fat yogurt) or fortified orange juice. Use supplements only in amounts needed to help meet your calcium goal, she says.

Cardiologist Gina Lundberg, an assistant professor of medicine at Emory University in Atlanta, says she’s going to tell her patients “to avoid calcium supplements and eat foods high in calcium such as skim milk and Greek yogurt.”

Here are the current recommendations for calcium intake based on age group, in milligrams per day:

Children ages 1-3: 700

Children 4-8: 1,000

Adolescents 9-18: 1,300

All adults 19-50: 1,000

Men 51-70: 1,000

Women 51+: 1,200

Men 71+: 1,200

To get this amount of calcium in food, children and adults would need to consume about three servings a day of calcium-rich foods, such as low-fat milk, yogurt or fortified orange juice. Teens need four servings. A cup of milk has about 300 milligrams of calcium.

Source: Institute of Medicine, USA TODAY research

SOURCE : usatoday.com

กินเจปั๊มหัวใจแข็งแรงมากกว่าคนทั่วไป 1 ใน 3

Credit: m.nydailynews.com

Credit: m.nydailynews.com

ผู้ที่ทิ้งเนื้อและปลา หันมากินผักผลไม้อย่างเดียว จะปั้นให้หัวใจมีสุขภาพแข็งแรงอย่างเห็นได้ชัด ดังจะเห็นได้จากนักมังสวิรัติจะไม่ค่อยเสียชีวิต หรือต้องนอนโรงพยาบาลเพราะโรคหัวใจน้อยกว่าคนทั่วไปถึง 32%

วารสาร “โภชนาการคลินิก” รายงานว่า นักวิทยาศาสตร์มหาวิทยาลัยออกซ์ฟอร์ด ได้ศึกษากับผู้เป็นมังสวิรัติทั้งในอังกฤษและสกอตแลนด์จำนวน 44,500 คน เปรียบเทียบกับผู้ที่กินอาหารปกติธรรมดา อยู่เป็นเวลานาน 11 ปี

ดร.ฟานเซสกา โครว์ หัวหน้านักวิจัยแจ้งว่า “ผลการศึกษาได้บอกให้รู้ว่า อาหารเป็นตัวชี้สุขภาพหัวใจสำคัญอย่างหนึ่ง และอาหารก็ให้ผลต่างกัน การกินผักผลไม้เป็นหลัก ช่วยลดการบริโภคไขมันให้น้อยลง เป็นเหตุให้ลดโอกาสเสี่ยงกับโรคหัวใจลงได้ นอกจากนั้น มันยังช่วยให้ความดันเลือดและไขมันในเลือดต่ำ และทำให้น้ำหนักตัวปกติด้วย

ขณะเดียวกัน โฆษกของมูลนิธิโรคหัวใจอังกฤษ ก็ให้ความเห็นว่า “ผลการวิจัยเท่ากับเตือนเราว่า เราควรจะกินอาหารให้ถูกส่วน และต่าง ๆ กัน ไม่ว่าจะรวมเนื้อสัตว์ด้วยหรือไม่ และควรรู้ว่าการกินมังสวิรัติ ไม่ใช่เป็นทางลัดไปสู่การมีหัวใจแข็งแรงทางเดียว”.

ที่มา :  ไทยรัฐ 15 กุมภาพันธ์ 2556

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Vegetarians ‘cut heart risk by 32%’

By James Gallagher Health and science reporter, BBC News
Ditching meat and fish in favour of a vegetarian diet can have a dramatic effect on the health of your heart, research suggests.

A study of 44,500 people in England and Scotland showed vegetarians were 32% less likely to die or need hospital treatment as a result of heart disease.

Differences in cholesterol levels, blood pressure and body weight are thought to be behind the health boost.

The findings were published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

Heart disease is a major blight in Western countries. It kills 94,000 people in the UK each year, more than any other disease, and 2.6 million people live with the condition.

The heart’s own blood supply becomes blocked up by fatty deposits in the arteries that nourish the heart muscle. It can cause angina or even lead to a heart attack if the blood vessels become completely blocked.

Scientists at the University of Oxford analysed data from 15,100 vegetarians and 29,400 people who ate meat and fish.

Over the course of 11 years, 169 people in the study died from heart disease and 1,066 needed hospital treatment – and they were more likely to have been meat and fish eaters than vegetarians.

“Choosing the veggie option on the menu is not a shortcut to a healthy heart”

Tracy Parker British Heart Foundation

Dr Francesca Crowe said: “The main message is that diet is an important determinant of heart health.

“I’m not advocating that everyone eats a vegetarian diet. The diets are quite different. Vegetarians probably have a lower intake of saturated fat so it makes senses there is a lower risk of heart disease.”

The results showed the vegetarians had lower blood pressure, lower levels of “bad” cholesterol and were more likely to have a healthy weight.

Tracy Parker, from the British Heart Foundation, said: “This research reminds us that we should try to eat a balanced and varied diet – whether this includes meat or not.

“But remember, choosing the veggie option on the menu is not a shortcut to a healthy heart. After all, there are still plenty of foods suitable for vegetarians that are high in saturated fat and salt.

“If you’re thinking of switching to a vegetarian diet, make sure you plan your meals carefully so that you replace any lost vitamins and minerals, such as iron, that you would normally get from meat.”

SOURCE : bbc.co.uk

เป็นชายอย่าไปเสี่ยงโด๊ป แคลเซียม

Credit : suite101.com

Credit : suite101.com

สถานการแพทย์สิ่งแวดล้อมของสวีเดน กล่าวเตือนว่า ผู้ชายที่บำรุงร่างกายด้วยการกินแคลเซียม ทำให้ตนเองต้องตกอยู่ใต้อันตรายของการเสียชีวิตด้วยโรคหัวใจและหลอดเลือดมากกว่าปกติขึ้นอีกเกือบร้อยละ 20

ผู้ช่วยศาสตราจารย์ซูซานนา ลาร์สสัน เปิดเผยว่า “ได้หลักฐานเพิ่มเติมส่อว่า การกินแคลเซียมมากเกินไป จะยิ่งทำให้เสี่ยงกับโรคยิ่งขึ้น”

นักวิจัยของสถาบันโรคมะเร็งแห่งชาติสหรัฐฯ ได้รวบรวมข้อมูลจากชายหญิง อายุระหว่าง 50-71 ปี จำนวน 388,000 คน ได้ผลว่า ผู้ชายที่กินแคลเซียมวันละ 1,000 มิลลิกรัม จะเสี่ยงกับโรคหัวใจมากขึ้นร้อยละ 20 ทั้งยังจะเสี่ยงกับการเสียชีวิตด้วยโรคลมอัมพาตมากขึ้นอีกร้อยละ 14 ด้วย
อย่างไรก็ตาม  ผลการค้นพบนี้ ไม่ได้เกี่ยวข้องกับสตรี และการได้แคลเซียมจากการกินอาหาร  ก็ไม่เป็นโทษภัยแต่อย่างใด.

ที่มา :ไทยรัฐ 11 กุมภาพันธ์ 2556

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High Supplemental Calcium Intake May Increase Risk of CVD Death in Men

Feb. 4, 2013 — A high intake of supplemental calcium appears to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) death in men but not in women in a study of more 388,000 participants between the ages of 50 and 71 years, according to a report published Online First byJAMA Internal Medicine, a JAMA Network publication.

Calcium supplementation has become widely used, especially among the elderly population, because of its proposed bone health benefits. However, beyond calcium’s established role in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, its health effect on nonskeletal outcomes, including cardiovascular health, remains largely unknown and has become “increasingly contentious,” the authors write in the study background.

Qian Xiao, Ph.D., of the National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Md., and colleagues examined whether the intake of dietary and supplemental calcium was associated with mortality from total CVD, heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases. The study participants were 388,229 men and women ages 50 to 71 years from the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study in six states and two metropolitan areas from 1995 through 1996.

“In this large, prospective study we found that supplemental but not dietary calcium intake was associated with an increased CVD mortality in men but not in women,” the authors conclude.

During an average 12 years of follow-up, 7,904 CVD deaths in men and 3,874 CVD deaths in women were identified and supplements containing calcium were used by 51 percent of men and 70 percent of women. Compared with non-supplement users, men with an intake of supplemental calcium of more than 1,000 mg/day had an increased risk of total CVD death (risk ratio [RR], 1.20), more specifically with heart disease (RR, 1.19), but not significantly with cerebrovascular disease death (RR, 1.14).

For women, supplemental calcium intake was not associated with CVD death, heart disease death or cerebrovascular disease death. Dietary calcium intake also was not associated with CVD death in men or women.

“Whether there is a sex difference in the cardiovascular effect of calcium supplement warrants further investigation. Given the extensive use of calcium supplement in the population, it is of great importance to assess the effect of supplemental calcium use beyond bone health,” the authors conclude.

Commentary: Are Calcium Supplements Harmful to Cardiovascular Disease?

In a related commentary, Susanna C. Larsson, Ph.D., of the Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, writes: “More large studies are needed to further assess the potential health risks or benefits of calcium supplement use on CVD morbidity and mortality.”

“Meanwhile, a safe alternative to calcium supplements is to consume calcium-rich foods, such as low-fat dairy foods, beans and green leafy vegetables, which contain not only calcium but also a cocktail of essential minerals and vitamins,” Larsson continues.

“These non-dairy food sources of calcium have the added health benefits and have recently been reported to improve glycemic control in persons with diabetes. The paradigm ‘the more the better’ is invalid for calcium supplementation.”

Story Source:

The above story is reprinted from materials provided byAmerican Medical Association (AMA).

Journal References:

  1. Xiao Q, Murphy RA, Houston DK, Harris TB, Chow W, Park Y. Dietary and Supplemental Calcium Intake and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality: The National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health StudyJAMA Internal Medicine, 2013; DOI:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.3283
  2. Susanna C. Larsson. Are Calcium Supplements Harmful to Cardiovascular Disease? JAMA Internal Medicine, 2013; DOI: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.3769

พบเครื่องดื่มที่วิเศษยิ่งกว่า ชาและกาแฟ ใช้ปนกันจะบำรุงร่างกายได้ดีมากกว่า

thairath130123_002นักวิทยาศาสตร์ค้นพบเครื่องดื่มที่ต้มหรือชงชั้นยอดขนานใหม่เป็นชาที่ปรุงขึ้นจากใบต้นกาแฟ กล่าวกันว่าบำรุงร่างกายดียิ่งกว่าการดื่มชาหรือกาแฟโดยลำพัง

พวกเขากล่าวว่า ชาใบกาแฟจะมีรสชาติขมน้อยกว่าชาและไม่แก่เหมือนกับกาแฟ อุดมด้วยสารประกอบที่มีสรรพคุณป้องกันโรคเบาหวานและโรคหัวใจ มันยังมีคาเฟอินต่ำกว่าชาหรือกาแฟ ในขณะที่มีสารต่อต้านอนุมูลอิสระและแก้อักเสบ

นักวิจัยของสวนพฤกษศาสตร์คิว ตั้งอยู่ชานกรุงลอนดอนเป็นผู้วิเคราะห์ เครื่องดื่มสูตรใหม่นี้จากใบต้นกาแฟ ที่ถูกทิ้งไปเสียตั้งแต่แรก เพราะคิดจะใช้แต่เมล็ดของมันอย่างเดียว

อย่างไรก็ดี เคยพบหลักฐานว่า เครื่องดื่มแบบนี้ เคยดื่มกันในเอธิโอเปีย ซูดานใต้ และอินโดนีเซีย กันมาก่อนหน้านี้แล้ว.

 

ที่มา :  ไทยรัฐ 23 มกราคม 2556

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Tea made from coffee leaves found to beneficial for health

A tea brewed from the leaves of the coffee plant have been found to be high in compounds that are good for human health.

By Richard Gray, Science Correspondent
13 Jan 2013

Once it was a simple question: tea or coffee? Now, after a scientific breakthrough that choice will become rather less straightforward.

Researchers have discovered that a rare type of tea made from the coffee plant is more healthy than both the other beverages.

The scientists found that “coffee leaf tea” contained high levels of compounds credited with lowering the risk of heart disease and diabetes.

The leaves were found to contain more antioxidants than normal tea – which is already renowned for its healthy properties – and high levels of a natural chemical found in mangos known to combat inflammation.

The researchers believe the leaves of Coffea plants, as they are known scientifically, have been largely overlooked due to high value placed on coffee beans, which are actually seeds inside cherries produced by the small green shrub. These contain far fewer of the healthy compounds.

The researchers at the Royal Botanic Gardens in Kew, London, and the Joint Research Unit for Crop Diversity, Adaptation and Development in Montpellier, believe coffee leaves could provide a new, healthy drink to rival coffee and traditional green or black tea.

The drink, which contains low levels of caffeine, has earthy taste neither as bitter as tea nor as strong as coffee.

Dr Aaron Davies, a coffee expert and botanist at Kew Gardens who helped conduct the research, said coffee leaf tea was popular among some locals in places like Ethiopia and South Sudan and there had even been an attempt to market it in Britain in the 1800s.

He said: “In 1851 people were touting it as the next tea and there were all these reports at the time about its qualities. I spent some time in Sudan and met a village elder who made it every day – she would hike for a couple of hours to collect the leaves to make tea.

“What was surprising was how many antioxidants are in the coffee leaves. They are much higher than those in green tea and normal black tea.

“There were also very high levels of a substance called mangiferin in the leaves of arabica coffee plants. This chemical was first extracted from mangos but has had lots of healthy properties attached to it.”

Dr Davies found samples of coffee leaf tea in the Kew collections that date back nearly 100 years. At the time coffee producers in Sumatra and Java, in modern day Indonesia, had attempted to popularise coffee leaf tea in the UK and Australia.

Reports at the time claim the drink could offer immediate relief from hunger, fatigue and had the ability to “clear the brain of its cobwebs”. It was also described as refreshing, although there were some who described it as undrinkable.

Tests on 23 species of coffee plant by Mr Davies and Dr Claudine Campa from the Joint Research Unit for Crop Diversity, Adaptation and Development, showed that seven had high levels of mangiferin in their leaves.

Arabica coffee leaves were found to contain the highest levels of mangiferin, which has been found to have anti-inflammatory effects while also reduce the risk of diabetes, blood cholesterol, and protecting neurons in the brain.

The results, published in the scientific journal Annals of Botany, showed that arabica also had the highest levels of antioxidants – higher than those found in tea or traditional coffee.

Dr Davies said that despite being widely reputed to have medicinal like qualities, coffee leaf tea never caught on in Britain despite attempts to introduce it from Indonesia.

He said: “In South east Asia in the late 1800s there was coffee crisis as arabica plantations were hit badly by coffee leaf rust.

“Other species of coffee were taken to Asia as a result and people seemed to stop drinking the tea from coffee leaves in that area, so I wonder if there is a link.

“In the collection at Kew, some of the samples look like green tea and some of them look like black tea, so there are clearly differences in the way it is prepared. It is possible the new coffee species were not to the locals taste and so it lost popularity.

“What is amazing though is that there is so much work that goes on into the healthy properties of tea, but coffee leaves have been completely overlooked.”

The researchers admit, however, the impact of the compounds found in coffee leaves on the human body requires further research.

Studies on tea has found it to be rich in similar antioxidants that are thought to be beneficial against heart disease, diabetes and even cancer, although work is still being conducted to prove the role they play in the human body too.

The health benefits of compounds in coffee beans, however, are more controversial, with some studies showing contradictory findings, although it has been reported to reduce the risk of diseases like Parkinson’s disease, dementia and heart disease.

Coffee leaf tea is not yet widely available, but is sold by some health food shops.

Master tea taster Alex Probyn, who runs his own tea blending business and also advises Marks and Spencers on tea, tried coffee leaf tea while on a trip to Ethiopia and tested a sample that we obtained by mail order from a health food shop in the United States.

He said: “When I tried it in Ethiopia, it had a very fresh flavour, a bit like cut grass that is similar to what you would expect from a green tea. There is not any hint of coffee in there and most people would struggle to identify it from other leaves.

“The coffee leaves have quite a pungent and greenish character – they are bitter but not unpleasant. The sample that you have has a slightly menthol and eucalyptus taste that makes me think something else has been added to it to soften the bitterness.

“If I could find a source then I would use coffee leaves in my own blends as I think it offers something that is a little bit different. The difficulty may be that coffee growers will want the leaves to stay on their plants so they can produce good beans.”

Coffee beans are the world’s second most valuable commodity after crude oil, with almost eight million tonnes produced a year in an industry worth more than £43 billion. There are also 165 million cups of tea drunk every day in the UK.

SOURCE : telegraph.co.uk