นักวิจัยของสถาบันวิทยาภูมิคุ้มโรค ได้ความรู้จาก การศึกษา เซลล์บี.อันเป็นภูมิคุ้มโรค ซึ่งสร้างภูมิคุ้มกันว่า เซลล์บี.สามารถลงเอยได้หลายอย่าง ส่วนใหญ่มักจะตาย แบ่งตัวกลายเป็นภูมิคุ้มกัน หรือไม่ก็สร้างภูมิคุ้มกัน รูปแบบต่างๆ
โดยทั่วไปเชื่อว่า ปัจจัยภายนอก เช่น ฮอร์โมน บางชนิด หรือโมเลกุล เป็นตัวลิขิตชีวิตเซลล์ แต่ในการ ศึกษานี้ ศาสตราจารย์ฟิล ฮอดจ์กิน หัวหน้าแผนก เผยว่า ส่วนใหญ่แล้วขบวนการภายในของมันเป็นตัวกำหนด “เซลล์ทำตัวเหมือนกับมีเครื่องจักรกลในตัวควบคุมอยู่ เครื่องจักรนั้นคงเหมือนกับนาฬิกา หรือเครื่องจับ เวลาของการแบ่ง การตายแบบชนิดของภูมิคุ้มกันที่ผลิต”.
ที่มา: ไทยรัฐ 16 มกราคม 2555
Cells Influence Their Own Destiny
To understand in a big shake-up of scientists, which will determine the fate of cells, researchers at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute, show that the cells only control their own destiny to be.
Researchers from the Institute of Immunology Division, drew their conclusion after studying the B-cells, immune cells to produce antibodies.
B-cells, several fate. Some of the most common to die of his fate, to divide, an antibody-secreting cell antibodies or what to change it. All this happens while the cells in the lymph nodes are proliferating.
The general view is that a-cell fate by external stimuli, as determined as the presence of certain hormones and cell signaling molecules.
However, the said Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Immunology head, Professor Phil Hodgkin and his colleagues Dr. Mark Dowling, Dr. Cameron Wellard and Ms Zhou Jie, that the cell fate is largely determined by internal processes.
To check their theory development back to the research team, the conditions for the B-cells into different cell types, and then filmed the cells, working with Dr. John Markham of the National Information and Communication Technology Australia, new technologies and methods of image analysis to develop.
The research team from the experimental observations were strengthened by the experience of mathematical Dr. Ken Duffy from the Hamilton Institute at the National University of Ireland Maynooth. Dr. Duffy was critical understanding of the opportunities interpret were filmed for the team with the implementation of the 2500 cells. The team’s findings were recently published in the journal Science.
Professor Hodgkin said that the cells, as if the internal machinery that cells behave the fall fate. “Each of these machines is like an internal clock or timer for the division, death, what type of antibody they produce and whether they are antibody-secreting cells,” he said.
Dr. Dowling explains the different fates of results is a game. “Each cell in a sense, the establishment of a ticking clock for each of the results and all the bell goes off first is the decision that the cell starts,” he said. “The cell tries anything to win than to just do a lot.”
Professor Hodgkin said that although the cells were given the same external signals, there are considerable differences in what happened to the cell population. “A reliable part of the B-cells with each of the different fates would end,” he said. “This suggests that external factors such as hormones and cell signaling molecules, cells, not what they should do, to tell, but the probability of changing what the cells do anyway.”
When the body reacts to infection, many cell types, each producing a different function. Dr. Dowling said, it could be that the body has a chance to optimize the production of certain cell types, depending on the situation was. “The body produces many different hormones and cell signaling proteins, so the odds are for different infections. A lot of molecules involved in the immune system respond to this opportunity.”
Professor Hodgkin said the hope was now mathematical models of how the external signals, the probability that an immune cell population predict create change. “The development of such models would help in the development of new immunotherapies for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and better vaccines,” he said.
This study was supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, the Victorian Government and the Science Foundation Ireland.
Data from: www.sowscience.com
In division or death, research finds cells in charge of their destiny
Date: January 11 2012
Jackie Hanafie and Damien Currie
MELBOURNE researchers have found that the body’s immune cells have a greater control over their own destiny than previously realised, prompting a shake-up of scientists’ understanding of how cells work.
The findings, by researchers from the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute in Parkville, will aid future drug design for a range of conditions including diabetes, some infectious diseases, rheumatoid arthritis and allergies such as hayfever.
After studying B cells – immune system cells that can make antibodies – the researchers discovered that cells were not necessarily instructed by their exposure to hormones and their external environment, as originally thought.
A B cell is a type of blood cell that belongs to a group of white blood cells called lymphocytes, which are crucial in protecting the body from infection.
B cells are an essential component of the adaptive immune system.
Head of immunology Professor Phil Hodgkin, who led the study, said it showed that this was not actually the case, with the cells being involved in an internal decision-making process.
”Each cell has the potential to divide, to die, to change the type of antibody it makes,” Professor Hodgkin said.
”This all happens while the cells are proliferating in the lymph nodes.”
Mark Dowling also worked on the study alongside colleagues Jie Zhou, Cameron Wellard and John Markham.
Dr Dowling explained the results as the different outcomes being in competition with each other.
”Each cell will, in some sense, set up a clock that starts ticking for each of the outcomes and whatever clock goes off first is the decision that the cell makes,” he said.
“The cell is trying to do everything but only one fate wins.”
The study, which was supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, the Victorian government and Science Foundation Ireland, involved filming a recreation of the conditions necessary for B cells to develop into different cell types.
Professor Hodgkin said the hope is now to create new models that will help in the design of new immune therapies for autoimmune diseases and improved vaccines.
The study took place over a four year period and was recently published in the international journal Science.
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Data from: www.theage.com.au