ยืดอายุให้ยืนยาวด้วย ‘ทูน่า’

bangkokbiznews140307_001โรคหัวใจและหลอดเลือดเป็นปัญหาสุขภาพที่มีแนวโน้มสูงขึ้นทุกปี จากข้อมูลของสำนักงานหลักประกันสุขภาพแห่งชาติ (สปสช.) ในปี 2556 พบว่า โรคหัวใจเป็นโรคที่มีอัตราการเสียชีวิตติดอันดับ 1 ใน 10 ของโรคที่มีอัตราการตายสูงสุดในประเทศไทย และยังส่งผลให้เกิดความสูญเสียทางเศรษฐกิจถึงปีละประมาณ 50,000 ล้านบาท จากการวิจัยและคำแนะนำของแพทย์เพื่อยืดอายุให้ยืนยาวพร้อมกับลดความเสี่ยงจากโรคหัวใจนั้นสามารถเริ่มต้นง่ายๆ ด้วยการรับประทานปลา โดยเฉพาะปลาทะเลน้ำลึกที่อุดมไปด้วยกรดไขมันโอเมก้า 3 ที่เต็มเปี่ยมด้วยคุณค่าทางโภชนาการและมากประโยชน์ต่อสุขภาพ

กรดไขมันโอเมก้า 3 เป็นกรดไขมันไม่อิ่มตัวที่ร่างกายสร้างเองไม่ได้ จำเป็นต้องได้รับจากอาหาร ซึ่งพบได้มากในปลาทะเลน้ำลึกทั้งในปลาแซลมอน ปลาซาร์ดีน ปลาแมคเคอเรล และปลาทูน่า ที่มีไขมัน โอเมก้า 3 สูงถึง 1 – 4 กรัม ต่อเนื้อปลา 100 กรัม กรดไขมันโอเมก้า 3 ที่สำคัญมี 2 ชนิด ได้แก่ EPA (EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID) และ DHA (DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID) ที่เป็นประโยชน์ต่อผู้สูงอายุ ซึ่งจะช่วยลดความเสี่ยงของการเกิดโรคหลอดเลือดหัวใจได้ เนื่องจากโอเมก้าไปช่วยลดการเกาะตัวของเกล็ดเลือดและการหดตัวของหลอดเลือด จึงส่งผลให้เกิดลิ่มเลือดอุดตันได้ยากขึ้น อีกทั้งยังช่วยลดอัตราเสี่ยงโรคหัวใจล้มเหลว และช่วยลดระดับไขมันไตรกลีเซอไรด์ในเลือดจึงลดความเสี่ยงการเกิดโรคหลอดเลือดได้

ผลการศึกษาวิจัยของนักวิทยาศาสตร์จากคณะสาธารณสุขมหาวิทยาลัยฮาร์วาร์ดในสหรัฐ พบว่าผู้ใหญ่อายุ 65 ปีขึ้นไปที่กินปลาเป็นประจำมีโอเมก้า 3 ในปริมาณสูง ทำให้มีอายุเฉลี่ยยืนยาวมากกว่าผู้ที่ไม่บริโภคกรดไขมันโอเมก้า 3 ถึง 2 ปี ทั้งนี้ พบความเชื่อมโยงว่าผู้ที่มีระดับโอเมก้า 3 ในร่างกายในปริมาณสูงมีความเสี่ยงเสียชีวิตด้วยโรคหัวใจเพียงร้อยละ 35 น้อยกว่าผู้มีระดับความดันโลหิตต่ำ นอกจากนั้นทางสมาคมแพทย์โรคหัวใจอเมริกันยังแนะนำเพิ่มเติมว่าวิธีที่ดีที่สุดในการเพิ่มกรดโอเมก้า 3 ในร่างกาย คือ เพิ่มการรับประทานปลาทะเลสัปดาห์ละ 2-3 ครั้ง เพื่อช่วยลดความเสี่ยงโรคหัวใจและหลอดเลือด

ที่มา : กรุงเทพธุรกิจ 7 มีนาคม 2557

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Credit: better4you.mbooth.com

Credit: better4you.mbooth.com

Ask the Expert: Omega-3 Fatty Acids

The Expert

Dr. Frank Sacks

Professor of Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health

1. What are omega-3 fatty acids, and why should I make sure to include them in my diet?

Omega-3 fatty acids (also known as n-3 fatty acids) are polyunsaturated fatty acids that are essential nutrients for health. We need omega-3 fatty acids for numerous normal body functions, such as controlling blood clotting and building cell membranes in the brain, and since our bodies cannot make omega-3 fats, we must get them through food. Omega-3 fatty acids are also associated with many health benefits, including protection against heart disease and possibly stroke. New studies are identifying potential benefits for a wide range of conditions including cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and other autoimmune diseases such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

2. What foods are good sources of omega-3 fatty acids? How much do I need to eat of these foods to get enough omega-3s?

There are two major types of omega-3 fatty acids in our diets: One type is alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), which is found in some vegetable oils, such as soybean, rapeseed (canola), and flaxseed, and in walnuts. ALA is also found in some green vegetables, such as Brussels sprouts, kale, spinach, and salad greens. The other type, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is found in fatty fish. The body partially converts ALA to EPA and DHA.

We do not know whether vegetable or fish omega-3 fatty acids are equally beneficial, although both seem to be beneficial. Unfortunately, most Americans do not get enough of either type. For good health, you should aim to get at least one rich source of omega-3 fatty acids in your diet every day. This could be through a serving of fatty fish (such as salmon), a tablespoon of canola or soybean oil in salad dressing or in cooking, or a handful of walnuts or ground flaxseed mixed into your morning oatmeal.

3. What are omega-6 fatty acids? Should I be concerned about the ratio of omega-6 fatty acids to omega-3 fatty acids in my diet?

Omega-6 fatty acids (also known as n-6 fatty acids) are also polyunsaturated fatty acids that are essential nutrients, meaning that our bodies cannot make them and we must obtain them from food. They are abundant in the Western diet; common sources include safflower, corn, cottonseed, and soybean oils.

Omega-6 fatty acids lower LDL cholesterol (the “bad” cholesterol) and reduce inflammation, and they are protective against heart disease. So both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids are healthy. While there is a theory that omega-3 fatty acids are better for our health than omega-6 fatty acids, this is not supported by the latest evidence. Thus the omega-3 to omega-6 ratio is basically the “good divided by the good,” so it is of no value in evaluating diet quality or predicting disease.

4. Is it better to get omega-3 fatty acids from food or from supplements?

Certainly foods, since the plants and fish that contain omega-3 fats have other good nutrients, such as protein, vitamins and minerals. People who do not eat fish or other foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids should consider taking an omega-3 supplement of 500 mg per day; fish oil is used in supplements, but there are also vegetarian supplements that have ALA. Studies suggest that people who have already had a heart attack may benefit from higher doses of omega-3 supplements (basically, double the 500 mg), so if you do have heart disease, consult your healthcare provider about whether taking a higher dose of omega 3s makes sense for you.

5. I am a vegetarian, so I do not consume any fish. But I get plenty of ALA in my diet, from canola and soybean oil, ground flax seed, and walnuts. How efficiently does the body convert ALA to DHA and EPA? Should I take an algal DHA supplement?

If you are getting adequate ALA in your diet from oils and nuts, I am not sure you really need to take an algal DHA supplement. As I mentioned above, the body partially converts ALA to EPA and DHA; it is not known if ALA has substantial health benefits as is, or whether it must be converted to EPA and DHA to produce most of the benefits. My current interpretation of the science is that ALA is important to nutrition because it is an essential fatty acid, and that at least part of its benefits come from its conversion to EPA and DHA. I don’t advocate that vegans take n-3 supplements if they are getting ALA from vegetable oils, vegetables, walnuts, and other vegetarian sources as described above.

6. Can omega-3 fatty acids be destroyed by high-heat cooking?

Not if the oil is fresh. In fact, even in frying oil that is used for days, you still can find ALA in it.

SOURCE : www.hsph.harvard.edu

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Immunologists find a molecule that puts the brakes on inflammation

Christopher Hunter and Aisling O’Hara Hall

(Medical Xpress) September 28, 2012—We couldn’t live without our immune systems, always tuned to detect and eradicate invading pathogens and particles. But sometimes the immune response goes overboard, triggering autoimmune diseases like lupus, asthma or inflammatory bowel disease.

A new study led by University of Pennsylvania researchers has now identified a crucial signaling molecule involved in counterbalancing the immune system attack.

“The immune response is like driving a car,” said Christopher Hunter, professor and chair in the Department of Pathobiology in Penn’s School of Veterinary Medicine. “You hit the accelerator and develop this response that’s required to protect you from a pathogen, but, unless you have a brake to guide the response, then you’ll just careen off the road and die because you can’t control the speed of the response.”

The research to characterize this immune system “brake” was led by Hunter and Aisling O’Hara Hall, a doctoral candidate in the Immunology Graduate Group. Additional Penn collaborators included scientists from the Penn Genome Frontiers Institute’s Department of Biology and the Perelman School of Medicine’s Department of Medicine.Researchers from Merck Research Laboratories, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, Harvard Medical School and Janssen Research and Development also contributed to the work, which was published in the journal Immunity.

“Healthy people have these cells—you have them, I have them—that are called Tregs,” or regulatory T cells, Hunter said. “If you don’t have them you develop spontaneous inflammation and disease.”

Different forms of regulatory T cells operate as the brakes on various kinds of inflammation, but, until now, scientists hadn’t been certain of how these Tregs became specialized to do their particular jobs.

Hall, Hunter and colleagues decided to follow up on a molecule called IL-27. Scientists used to think IL-27 played a role in causing inflammation, but, in 2005, a team of Penn researchers, including Hunter, found the opposite; it was actually involved in suppressing inflammation. Thus, when mice that lack IL-27 are challenged with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, they develop overwhelming inflammation. ”

We never worked out how it did that, but it was a paradigm change at the time,” Hunter said.

In the new study, the researchers delved deeper into IL-27’s role. They found that exposing regulatory T cells to IL-27 promoted their ability to suppress a particular type of inflammation. The Penn-led team also demonstrated that they could rescue infected IL-27-deficient mice by giving them a transfusion of regulatory T cells. This finding suggests that IL-27 is required to produce the Treg cells that normally keep inflammatory responses in check during infection.

“Very surprisingly, we were able to show that the Tregs could ameliorate the pathology in this system,” Hall said. “We don’t think this is the only mechanism by which IL-27 limits immune pathology, but it sheds light on one mechanism by which it could be functioning.”

Further experiments showed that Tregs express a different suite of genes in the presence of IL-27 as compared to another molecule that has been implicated in this process, interferon gamma, or IFN-γ. The researchers’ findings indicate that the two molecules have division of labor when it comes to suppressing inflammation: IL-27 seems to be important in helping control inflammation at the site of inflammation, whereas IFN-γ appears more significant in the peripheral tissues.

“At the site of inflammation, where you’re getting your pathology, that’s where IL- 27 is important,” Hall said.

With a new understanding of how IL-27 may cause a class of Tregs to become specialized inflammation fighters, researchers have a new target for ameliorating the unwanted inflammation associated with all kinds of autoimmune conditions.

“Now we have a molecular signature that may be relevant in inflammatory bowel disease, in multiple sclerosis, in colitis and Crohn’s disease, in rheumatoid arthritis, in lupus,” Hunter said.

Next on tap, the team plans to study IL-27 in the context of asthma , lupus and arthritis.

More information: dx.doi.org/10.1016… .2012.06.014 J
Journal reference: Immunity
Provided by University of Pennsylvania

SOURCE: medicalxpress.com