หนังสือพิมพ์ “ข่าวการแพทย์รายวัน” ของสหรัฐฯเปิดเผยว่า สาว ๆ อเมริกันพากันมีอกขยายใหญ่โตขึ้น จากที่เฉลี่ยเคยใช้ยกทรงขนาด 34 บี ต้องเปลี่ยนไปใช้เป็นขนาด 36 ซี และมีผู้แสดงความกังวลว่าการมีทรวดทรงใหญ่โตขึ้นจะเป็นผลร้ายต่อสุขภาพ
มีผู้เชี่ยวชาญเขียนหนังสือวิจารณ์การมีอกโตใหญ่ ขึ้น เป็นการแสดงว่าขนาดเอวจะต้องใหญ่ขึ้นด้วย อันเป็นปัจจัยที่มีส่วนเกี่ยวพันกับภัยของมะเร็งเต้านมที่สูงขึ้น
ข้อเสียเนื่องจากการที่ขนาดอกขยายขึ้น ยังส่อให้รู้ว่า มีส่วนทำให้เด็กหญิงอเมริกันปัจจุบัน พากันเป็นสาวเร็วขึ้นด้วย ในการสำรวจทางกุมารเวชศาสตร์ เมื่อ พ.ศ. 2553 เด็กผู้หญิงมากถึงร้อยละ 15 เริ่มจะมีอกมาตั้งแต่อายุ 7 ขวบกันแล้ว รายงานข่าวยังกล่าวถึงผลของการมีหน้าอกโตใหญ่ จะได้รับภัยจากการปนเปื้อนเพิ่มขึ้น เพราะเมื่ออกใหญ่จะมีไขมันมาก ร่างกายจะเก็บพิษเคมีไว้ตามเซลล์ไขมัน ซึ่งหมายความว่า หน้าอกหน้าใจจะกลายเป็นคลังใหญ่ เก็บสารประกอบที่เป็นพิษ เช่น ปรอท หรือสารเคมีที่มีอยู่ในยาฆ่าแมลงและสีทาบ้านเอาไว้ และยิ่งมีมากเท่าไหร่ ก็อาจรั่วไหลเข้าไปในน้ำนมมารดา และส่งต่อไปยังลูกที่เพิ่งเกิดใหม่ได้.
ที่มา: ไทยรัฐ 12 กรกฎาคม 2555
Women can be scanned for breast cancer using a mammogram machine. Women aged 50 to 70, who are registered with a GP, are automatically invited for screening every three years
Women with bigger breasts DO have higher risk of breast cancer, finds genetic study
- Link may be sex hormone oestrogen that can trigger the growth of mammary glands and tumours
- Study is the first to identify genetic variants linking breast size with cancer
By TAMARA COHEN
PUBLISHED: 15:20 GMT, 4 July 2012 | UPDATED: 06:40 GMT, 5 July 2012
Women with a large bust may be more likely to develop breast cancer, according to scientists.
A study of 16,000 women found genetic mutations associated with breast size were also linked to the disease.
Researchers say some of these are involved in regulating the female sex hormone oestrogen, which can trigger the growth of both breasts and tumours.
While research has linked breast density – the amount of non-fat tissue – to an increased risk of cancer, there has been little evidence of a link with breast size before.
Participants in the study, carried out by a US company, were asked to give their bra size on a 10-point scale from smaller than AAA to larger than DDD.
The genetic code of the women – all of European origin – was read by scientists who looked through millions of tiny mutations in their DNA, called single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Out of seven that were strongly linked to breast size, three were also associated with breast cancer.
Breast cancer is the most common form of the disease in Britain, with 50,000 new cases a year and one in eight women affected during their lifetime.
Dr Nicholas Eriksson of the California-based genetics firm 23andMe said it was the first substantial link between breast size and cancer, but added much more research was needed before it could be considered concrete.
He said: ‘Our results identify genetic variants that have an effect on both breast cancer and natural variation in breast size.
‘While the precise relationships between breast size, density, obesity and breast cancer remain difficult to untangle, understanding the biology . . . may aid in the development of novel screening tools.’
He said one of the three mutations regulates the activity of the oestrogen receptor gene that plays a vital role in breast growth and in the majority of breast cancer cases.
Another is located in a region of a woman’s genome that often shows abnormalities in those with certain types of breast cancer.
The link was seen regardless of the women’s age, pregnancy and breastfeeding history and genetic ancestry, according to the study published in the journal BMC Medical Genetics.
Little is known about the biology of breast size, which scientists believe is only half hereditary, but high oestrogen levels are known to be a risk factor for breast cancer.
There are many different forms of breast cancer, which scientists believe could be treated as ten different illnesses. Weight, alcohol consumption and a strong family history are all risk factors.
A 2006 study by the Harvard School of Public Health on 90,000 pre-menopausal subjects found larger breast size in slim young women gave them a higher risk of breast cancer in later life.
Those with a body mass index of 25 or less and a bra size of D or larger had a significantly higher risk of breast cancer than those of the same weight with a cup size A or smaller, they found.
However, the study’s lead author, Karin Michels, said the findings did not mean those with small breasts could assume they were safe and urged all women to go for breast cancer screening.
Data from: dailymail.co.uk
Large Breasts Can Take Mental, Physical Toll on Teens
Research shows some girls with the condition have physical pain, lower self-esteem
By Barbara Bronson Gray
MONDAY, July 16 (HealthDay News) — For many teen girls, an overly large cup size may not be such a good thing, with many reporting serious discomfort both physically and emotionally because of their large breasts.
According to a new study, for some, these issues are troubling enough for them to seek breast-reduction surgery.
Dr. Brian Labow, the lead author of the study, performs about 100 breast-reduction surgeries a year on adolescent girls, and he thought the topic had been understudied.
“I wondered, how do you measure the impact of the surgery? And do adolescents benefit by waiting until they’re older to get the surgery?” said Labow, an assistant professor at Harvard Medical School and a pediatric plastic surgeon at Children’s Hospital Boston.
Macromastia — large breasts — is considered a common condition by plastic surgeons. According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, there were more than 63,000 breast-reduction surgeries conducted in the United States in 2011.
Labow said girls seeking breast-reduction surgery in adolescence typically do so because they have experienced issues such as neck and shoulder pain, low self-esteem, undesired attention and difficulty finding clothes that fit.
Still, it’s difficult to predict who among the big-breasted will be troubled, Labow said. “There are people with large breasts who are happy,” he noted. And making a diagnosis of macromastia is not simple either, since a very short girl wearing a “D” cup size bra may be miserable, while a taller teen may feel fine with that size, he explained.
“Most teenage girls really don’t want to come to a doctor and discuss this. By the time I see them, the breast has become their enemy,” explained Labow.
Complicating the situation is the fact that about two-thirds of adolescents with macromastia are overweight. But Labow said effective weight reduction typically doesn’t resolve the breast-size problem.
For the study, 96 girls between the ages of 12 and 21 were surveyed. They all were diagnosed with macromastia by a plastic surgeon at Children’s Hospital Boston, but had not had breast surgery. Also queried for comparison were 103 healthy girls in the same age range (the “control group”), who were patients in other departments at the hospital, had no identified breast issues and no history of eating disorders or mental health issues.
The study participants answered questions about physical functioning and pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, self-esteem, mental health, body image and eating. They also responded to a questionnaire designed specifically for this research that asked about breast-specific issues, such as their cup size, whether they had concerns about their breasts, and if they had ever considered breast surgery.
The study suggests that macromastia has a substantial negative impact on health-related quality of life, self-esteem, physical symptoms and eating behaviors among adolescents, independent of a person’s weight or body mass index (BMI). BMI is a measurement that takes into account a person’s height and weight.
Notably, among those who were diagnosed with macromastia, there was triple the risk of eating disorders compared to the girls in the control group, even when age and BMI were taken into account.
Labow said the data support the value of allowing girls who seek breast-reduction surgery to get the procedure in adolescence, rather than making them wait until they are older. “They are suffering. If you wait about three years after menarche [when a girl’s menstrual periods start], the breasts may grow slightly but not enough to necessitate waiting longer,” he said.
The study was published online July 16 in Pediatrics.
If classified as reconstructive surgery — making something abnormal normal — the surgery is almost always covered by insurance, Labow added. He estimated the average cost of the 2.5-hour outpatient surgery, including five office visits, is about $15,000.
However, in addition to cost considerations, the surgery does pose some risks, noted Dr. Malcolm Roth, chief of the division of plastic surgery at Albany Medical Center, in New York, and president of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, in Arlington Heights, Ill. “Especially for those who are overweight, the risks include delayed wound healing, scarring and an unsatisfactory outcome,” Roth said.
Potential side effects of the surgery include an inability to breast-feed and short-term changes in nipple sensitivity, said Labow.
For these reasons, Roth said it often makes sense to first encourage the teenager to lose weight, which, he concedes, can be difficult. He explained that for some, macromastia even makes it tough to exercise. “But after the surgery, girls may be better able to go to the gym and work out,” he said.
Roth believes that the new research confirms what plastic surgeons have long known to be true: “There are significant physical and psychological issues girls and women with large breasts suffer from that can be resolved with breast-reduction surgery.”
For more on plastic surgery in the teen years, head to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons.
SOURCES: Brian I. Labow, M.D., assistant professor, Harvard Medical School, and pediatric plastic surgeon, Children’s Hospital Boston; Malcolm Z. Roth, M.D., chief, division of plastic surgery, Albany Medical Center, Albany, N.Y., and president, American Society of Plastic Surgeons, Arlington Heights, Ill; July 16, 2012, Pediatrics, online
Last Updated: July 16, 2012
Data from: consumer.healthday.com