พบวิธีรักษาโรคมะเร็งต่อมลูกหมากได้เกลี้ยงใช้วิธีซ่อนไส้ศึกเข้าไปแบบ”ม้าเมืองทรอย”

A hollow Trojan horse filled with soldiers was supposedly used to enter Troy

A hollow Trojan horse filled with soldiers was supposedly used to enter Troy

นักวิจัยมหาวิทยาลัยเชฟฟิลด์ของอังกฤษ อ้างว่าพบวิธีรักษาโรคมะเร็ง ด้วยวิธีส่งไส้ศึกจากภายนอก เข้าไปกวาดล้างมะเร็งของต่อมลูกหมากของหนูออกได้หมดเกลี้ยง

นักวิทยาศาสตร์ใช้วิธีส่งไวรัสเพชฌฆาตเข้าไปในระบบภูมิคุ้มโรค ดอดเข้าไปโจมตีเนื้อร้าย โดยใช้เซลล์โลหิตขาวเหมือนกับม้าเมืองทรอย ลอบส่งกำลังเข้าไปทำลายมะเร็ง

ศาสตราจารย์แคลร์ ลูอิส หัวหน้านักวิจัย แจ้งว่า ปกติหลังจากการรักษาโรคมะเร็งด้วยเคมีบำบัด ซึ่งพลอยทำให้เนื้อเยื่ออื่นได้รับความเสียหายไปด้วย จะก่อให้เกิดเซลล์ของเม็ดโลหิตขาวทะลักออกมาท่วมท้นบริเวณนั้นเป็นอันมาก เพื่อช่วยซ่อมแซมความเสียหาย “เราจึงได้ฉวยโอกาสนี้หาทางส่งไวรัสทำลายเนื้อร้าย แอบเข้าไปกลางใจเนื้อร้ายเลย”

ในการศึกษานี้ ได้พบว่าหนูทดลองซึ่งได้รับการฉีดเซลล์โลหิตขาว หลังจากที่ได้รับเคมีบำบัดไปแล้ว 2 วัน เซลล์โลหิตขาวจะระเบิดออกหลังจากนั้น 12 ชม. โดยเซลล์แต่ละตัวจะยิงไวรัสออกมา 10,000 ตัว เข้าไปสังหารเซลล์มะเร็ง เมื่อตรวจหนูพวกนั้นอีก 40 วันต่อมา ไม่พบร่องรอยของเนื้อร้ายเหลือเลย.

ที่มา: ไทยรัฐ  26 ธันวาคม 2555

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Trojan-horse therapy ‘completely eliminates’ cancer in mice

21 December 2012
By James GallagherHealth and science reporter, BBC News

An experimental “Trojan-horse” cancer therapy has completely eliminated prostate cancer in experiments on mice, according to UK researchers.

The team hid cancer killing viruses inside the immune system in order to sneak them into a tumour.

Once inside, a study in the journal Cancer Research showed, tens of thousands of viruses were released to kill the cancerous cells.

Experts labelled the study “exciting,” but human tests are still needed.

Using viruses to destroy rapidly growing tumours is an emerging field in cancer therapy, however one of the challenges is getting the viruses deep inside the tumour where they can do the damage.

“There’s a problem with getting enough virus into the tumour,” Prof Claire Lewis from the University of Sheffield told the BBC.


Harnessing the body’s own immune system to deliver a deadly virus to tumours is an exciting approach.”

Dr Emma SmithCancer Research UK

She leads a team which uses white blood cells as ‘Trojan horses’ to deliver the viral punch.

‘Surfing’

After chemotherapy or radiotherapy is used to treat cancer, there is damage to the tissue. This causes a surge in white blood cells, which swamp the area to help repair the damage.

“We’re surfing that wave to get as many white blood cells to deliver tumour-busting viruses into the heart of a tumour,” said Prof Lewis.

Her team takes blood samples and extract macrophages, a part of the immune system which normally attacks foreign invaders. These are mixed with a virus which, just like HIV, avoids being attacked and instead becomes a passenger in the white blood cell.

In the study, the mice were injected with the white blood cells two days after a course of chemotherapy ended.

At this stage each white blood cell contained just a couple of viruses. However, once the macrophages enter the tumour the virus can replicate. After about 12 hours the white blood cells burst and eject up to 10,000 viruses each – which go on to infect, and kill, the cancerous cells.

Gone

At the end of the 40-day study, all the mice who were given the Trojan treatment were still alive and had no signs of tumours.

By comparison, mice given other treatments died and their cancer had spread.

Prof Lewis said: “It completely eradicates the tumour and stops it growing back.”

She said it was a “ground-breaking” concept, but cautioned that many remarkable advances in treating mice failed to have any effect in people.

She hopes to begin human trials next year.

Dr Emma Smith, from Cancer Research UK, said: “Harnessing the body’s own immune system to deliver a deadly virus to tumours is an exciting approach that many scientists are pursuing.

“This study shows it has the potential to make chemotherapy and radiotherapy more effective weapons against cancer.

She said the research was still at an early stage and tests to show it is safe and effective in humans are still needed.

Dr Kate Holmes, head of research at Prostate Cancer UK, said: “It demonstrates that this innovative method of delivering a tumour-killing virus direct to the cancer site is successful at reducing the development of advanced prostate tumours in mice which have been treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

“If this treatment goes on to be successful in human trials, it could mark substantial progress in finding better treatments for men with prostate cancer which has spread to the bone.”

SOURCE : bbc.co.uk

 

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ชาเขียวต้านมะเร็ง

Research has revealed at the cellular level how green tea might prevent breast and prostate cancers. However, the studies used green tea in its extracted or pure form; most supermarket versions only contain small amounts of actual green tea.
CREDIT: Olga Miltsova | shutterstock

งานวิจัยเผยการดื่มชาเขียวช่วยป้องกันการเกิดมะเร็งได้

Green Tea’s Anti-Cancer Secrets Revealed

Christopher Wanjek, LiveScience Bad Medicine Columnist
Date: 18 October 2012 Time: 03:01 PM ET

Doctors have speculated for years on the possible benefits from drinking green tea. The ancient brew has been associated with just about everything healthy, from boosting the immune system to preventing and reversing chronic diseases.

Health studies on green tea, however, have been promising but not conclusive. But now doctors have better identified, at a cellular level, how green tea might prevent the spread of breast and prostate cancers.

Chemicals in green tea called polyphenols appear to inhibit two proteins that promote tumor cell growth and migration — namely, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF).

This finding, based on an ongoing study of 40 women with a type of breast cancer that doesn’t respond to hormone therapy, was presented today (Oct. 18) at the 11th Annual International Conference on Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research in Anaheim, Calif. This same mechanism might be behind positive results seen among prostate cancer patients, also presented today by a separate team of researchers at the same conference.

Testing tea’s effects

The breast cancer study was led by Katherine D. Crew, an assistant professor of medicine and epidemiology at Columbia University Medical Center in New York. Crew’s team randomly administered either a placebo or varying concentrations of a green tea extract known commercially as Polyphenon E, which contains several green tea polyphenols.

Those women receiving green tea extract had significantly lower levels of the tumor growth factors at two months into the treatment. While differences between those receiving a placebo and those receiving the extract were not as significant after four and six months, this was perhaps due to patients not keeping up with the pills, Crew said.

One goal of this ongoing study is to establish an appropriate dose of the green tea extract — the study levels were equivalent to eight to 24 cups of pure green tea — and Crew remains hopeful her group can identify this optimal level for the best therapeutic effect, she told LiveScience.

“This study was too small to say for sure if green tea will prevent breast cancer, but it may move us forward in terms of understanding antitumor mechanisms,” Crew said.

Green tea and prostate cancer

Crew’s work builds upon a smaller study of 26 men with prostate cancer, published in 2009 by a team led by James Cardelli of the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in Shreveport, La. Cardelli found similar reductions in the same growth factors with Polyphenon E.

A newer study on prostate cancer, presented at today’s meeting, had participants drink lots of brewed green tea, not the extract. This study, led by Susanne Henning, an adjunct professor at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California Los Angeles, involved 67 men about to undergo a prostatectomy, the removal of an enlarged or cancerous prostate.

In the weeks before the procedure, these men were randomly assigned to a regimen of drinking either six cups of brewed green tea or water daily. Those who drank the green tea had significantly lower levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA); elevated PSA is associated with prostate tumor growth.

Combined with Cardelli’s 2009 study, the newer finding suggests green tea polyphenols, as consumed in copious amounts of green tea, might help control the two tumor growth factors — VEGF and HGF — to prevent full-blown prostate cancer.

Although Crew said it is still too early to recommend green tea to prevent cancer, she added that researchers are conducting several ongoing studies to explore the use of oral green tea extract in high-risk women for the primary prevention of breast cancer.

These studies used green tea in its extracted or pure form. Those hoping to reap healthful benefits of green tea should note that most tea products in the supermarket contain only small amounts of green tea and are often mixed with sugar or other flavors.

In Japan, where green tea consumption is high, prostate and breast cancer rates are about three times lower when compared with the United States, according to the World Health Organization, although differences could be attributed to other dietary factors.

The Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research conference is hosted annually by the American Association for Cancer Research.

SOURCE: livescience.com

พบเส้นชีวิตของเนื้อร้ายในเซลล์ ใช้รักษามะเร็งของต่อมลูกหมาก

นักวิจัยมหาวิทยาลัยแบนกอร์คลำพบสวิตช์ที่อยู่ในเซลล์ ปิดเปิดเพื่อฆ่าเนื้อร้ายด้วยความร้อนได้ โดยใช้ร่วมกับยาต้านมะเร็งขนานหนึ่ง รักษามะเร็งของต่อมลูกหมากและมะเร็งเฉพาะบริเวณอื่นๆ อย่างได้ผล

เบื้องหลังของวิธีการรักษาแบบใหม่นี้ อยู่ที่การพบว่า ความร้อนมีอิทธิพลลึกลับ สามารถไปปิดสวิตช์กลไกสำคัญเกี่ยวกับความเป็นความตายของเซลล์มนุษย์ได้

วารสารวิชาการ “เซลล์วิทยาศาสตร์” รายงานว่า อานุภาพของความร้อน อยู่ตรงที่สามารถจะไปปรับความถี่ของกลไกการอยู่รอด ให้ผลิตโปรตีนชนิดใหม่ขึ้นได้ ซึ่งโปรตีนนี้จะเกิดขึ้นได้ก็ต่อเมื่อยีนที่อยู่ภายในยีนอีกตัวหนึ่งถูกปลุกให้อุ่นขึ้น

ดร.โทมาส คัสแปริ หัวหน้ากลุ่มชีววิทยาโครงสร้างพันธุกรรม  กล่าวว่า “การค้นพบนี้ทำให้อดนึกถึงชุดของตุ๊กตารัสเซียที่มีชื่อเสียงไม่ได้ ซึ่งจะมีตัวเล็กซ่อนอยู่ในตัวใหญ่ลงไปตามลำดับ  การที่มียีนอยู่ในยีนตัวอื่นจะช่วยอธิบายถึงว่าโครงสร้าง พันธุกรรมมนุษย์ ยังมีจำนวนยีนที่เล็กกว่าอยู่อีก เกินกว่าที่คาดหมายกันแต่ทีแรก” เขาสรุปว่า “งานของเราจะช่วยปรับปรุงการรักษามะเร็งด้วยความร้อน เพื่อประโยชน์ของคนไข้ยิ่งขึ้นไปอีก”.

ที่มา: ไทยรัฐ  17 สิงหาคม 2555

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How Heat Helps to Treat Cancer

ScienceDaily (Aug. 8, 2012) — Research at Bangor University has identified a switch in cells that may help to kill tumors with heat. Prostate cancer and other localized tumors can be effectively treated by a combination of heat and an anti-cancer drug that damages the genes. Behind this novel therapy is the enigmatic ability of heat to switch off essential survival mechanisms in human cells. Although thermotherapy is now more widely used, the underlying principles are still unclear.

In a recent publication in the Journal of Cell Science researchers based in the School of Biological Sciences report now that heat modulates these survival systems by promoting the production of a novel protein. Intriguingly, this protein is only produced when elevated temperatures activate a gene that hides inside another gene.

The leader of the Genome Biology group, Dr Thomas Caspari says: “The discovery is reminiscent of a Russian doll were a set of smaller wooden figures is placed inside a larger doll. The existence of such hidden genes may explain why the human genome has a much smaller number of genes than initially expected. Our work may also help to improve heat-treatment of cancer for the benefit of patients. This research success was a real team effort made possible by the generous funding from Cancer Research Wales and the European Leonardo DaVinci Program.”

Story Source:

The above story is reprinted from materials provided byBangor University.

Journal Reference:

  1. Simon Janes, Ulrike Schmidt, Karim Ashour Garrido, Nadja Ney, Susanna Concilio, Mohamed Zekri and Thomas Caspari. Heat induction of a novel Rad9 variant from a cryptic translation initiation site reduces mitotic commitmentJournal of Cell Science, 2012 DOI:10.1242/%u200Bjcs.104075

Source: sciencedaily.com

ชี้คีโมรักษามะเร็งอาจให้ผลตรงกันข้าม

วันนี้ (6 ส.ค.) สำนักข่าวเอเอฟพีรายงานจากกรุงปารีส ประเทศฝรั่งเศส ว่า คณะนักวิทยาศาสตร์แห่งศูนย์วิจัยมะเร็งเฟร็ด ฮัทชินสัน ในเมืองซีแอตเติล รัฐวอชิงตัน สหรัฐอเมริกา เผยผลวิจัยลงในวารสารการแพทย์ “เนเชอร์” เล่มล่าสุด ซึ่งพบว่า การรักษามะเร็งด้วยวิธีเคมีบำบัด หรือที่เราเรียกกันว่า คีโม อาจไม่ได้ผลตามที่คิด เนื่องจากคีโมสามารถทำลายเซลส์ที่สมบูรณ์แข็งแรง และทำให้เซลส์เหล่านี้หลั่งสารโปรตีน WNT1 6B ที่จะช่วยสนับสนุนการเจริญเติบโตของเนื้องอก

นายปีเตอร์ เนลสัน ผู้ร่วมเขียนรายงานผลการวิจัย กล่าวว่า การค้นพบดังกล่าว ถือเป็นสิ่งที่ “ผิดความคาดหมายโดยสิ้นเชิง”

นายเนลสัน กล่าวอีกว่า การค้นพบเกิดขึ้นในระหว่างการทดลองเพื่อค้นหาคำตอบ เหตุใดเซลส์มะเร็งจึงฟื้นคืนชีพได้เร็วมากในร่างกายมนุษย์ ทั้งที่พวกมันถูกฆ่าได้ง่ายมากในห้องทดลองวิจัย และการทดลองผลกระทบจากเคมีบำบัดรูปแบบหนึ่ง ต่อเนื้อเยื่อที่รวบรวมจากกลุ่มผู้ชายที่เป็นมะเร็งต่อมลูกหมาก พบหลักฐานการทำลายดีเอ็นเอ ในเซลส์ที่สมบูรณ์แข็งแรงหลังการทำคีโม และว่า เมื่อสารโปรตีน WNT1 6B ถูกหลั่งออกมา มันจะมีปฏิกิริยาต่อเซลส์เนื้องอกที่อยู่ใกล้ ๆ และทำให้เซลส์เหล่านี้เติบโต รุกราน และที่สำคัญคือ มันจะต้านทานการบำบัดรักษาโรคหลังจากนั้น.

ที่มา: เดลินิวส์  6 สิงหาคม 2555

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Chemotherapy can backfire and boost cancer growth: study

FP – Sun, Aug 5, 2012

Cancer-busting chemotherapy can cause damage to healthy cells which triggers them to secrete a protein that sustains tumour growth and resistance to further treatment, a study said Sunday.

Researchers in the United States made the “completely unexpected” finding while seeking to explain why cancer cells are so resilient inside the human body when they are easy to kill in the lab.

They tested the effects of a type of chemotherapy on tissue collected from men with prostate cancer, and found “evidence of DNA damage” in healthy cells after treatment, the scientists wrote in Nature Medicine.

Chemotherapy works by inhibiting reproduction of fast-dividing cells such as those found in tumours.

The scientists found that healthy cells damaged by chemotherapy secreted more of a protein called WNT16B which boosts cancer cell survival.

“The increase in WNT16B was completely unexpected,” study co-author Peter Nelson of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle told AFP.

The protein was taken up by tumour cells neighbouring the damaged cells.
“WNT16B, when secreted, would interact with nearby tumour cells and cause them to grow, invade, and importantly, resist subsequent therapy,” said Nelson.

In cancer treatment, tumours often respond well initially, followed by rapid regrowth and then resistance to further chemotherapy.

Rates of tumour cell reproduction have been shown to accelerate between treatments.

“Our results indicate that damage responses in benign cells… may directly contribute to enhanced tumour growth kinetics,” wrote the team.

The researchers said they confirmed their findings with breast and ovarian cancer tumours.

The result paves the way for research into new, improved treatment, said Nelson.

“For example, an antibody to WNT16B, given with chemotherapy, may improve responses (kill more tumour cells),” he said in an email exchange.

“Alternatively, it may be possible to use smaller, less toxic doses of therapy.”

Data from: news.yahoo.com

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Treatment: Blocking the response of a non-cancerous cell found near tumours could be one way of improving chemotherapy

Chemotherapy ‘can make cancers more resistant to treatment and even encourage them to grow’

  • Chemotherapy may affect healthy cells surrounding cancer cells
  • Research suggests that some forms of cancer treatment can make the disease tougher to tackle

By CLAIRE BATES

PUBLISHED: 07:36 GMT, 6 August 2012 | UPDATED: 15:36 GMT, 6 August 2012

Chemotherapy treatment for some cancers may actually encourage tumours to grow, researchers have claimed.

The treatment triggers the healthy body cells around the tumour to produce a protein that helps the disease to resist treatment.

The surprise discovery suggests that some forms of the cancer treatment are doing more harm than good.

Scientists believe the effect is caused by the impact of chemotherapy drugs on healthy connective tissue cells called fibroblasts.

In lab experiments they found the drugs caused DNA damage which made fibroblasts pump out 30 times more of a protein than normal.

This protein encouraged prostate tumours to grow and spread into surrounding tissue, as well as to resist chemotherapy.

‘Cancer cells inside the body live in a very complex environment or neighbourhood,’ said lead scientist Dr Peter Nelson, from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Centre in Seattle, U.S.

‘Where the tumour cell resides and who its neighbours are influence its response and resistance to therapy.’

Blocking the treatment response of fibroblasts could improve the effectiveness of chemotherapy, say the scientists whose findings are reported in the journal Nature Medicine.

The team examined cancer cells from prostate, breast and ovarian cancer patients who had been treated with chemotherapy.

Professor Fran Balkwill, from Cancer Research UK, said that this finding ties in with other research that has shown that ‘cancer treatments don’t just affect cancer cells, but can also target cells around tumours’.

This effect can sometimes be a positive one, Professor Balkwill said, as is the case when chemotherapy stimulates healthy immune cells to attack tumours nearby.

‘But this work confirms that healthy cells surrounding the tumour can also help the tumour to become resistant to treatment. The next step is to find ways to target these resistance mechanisms to help make chemotherapy more effective,’ Professor Balkwill added.

Data from: dailymail.co.uk

ทดลองใช้ขมิ้นรักษาคนไข้มะเร็ง ขัดขวางเซลล์เนื้อร้ายไม่ให้เติบโต

โรงพยาบาลของอังกฤษจะทดลองใช้ขมิ้นรักษาคนไข้โรคมะเร็งลำไส้ดู หลังจากพบว่า มันช่วยขนาบเซลล์มะเร็งไม่ให้เติบโต ในการทดลองในห้องปฏิบัติการได้

โรงพยาบาลจะได้ทดลองใช้สารเคอคิวมิน ซึ่งสกัดจากขมิ้น รักษาคนไข้ ที่มีจำนวนปีละ 40,000 ราย ร่วมกับเคมีบำบัด ตามปกติแล้ว คนไข้ที่โรคลุกลามออกไปแล้ว จะต้องรักษาด้วยยาเคมี 3 ขนาน แต่ปรากฏว่าคนไข้ตั้งกว่าครึ่ง ไม่ได้รับประโยชน์แต่อย่างใด

ศาสตราจารย์วิลเลียม สจวร์ด หัวหน้าคณะศึกษา กล่าวว่า จากการทดลองใช้สารเคอคิวมินร่วมกับเคมีบำบัด จะได้ผลดีกว่าเก่า ยิ่งกว่าใช้แต่ละขนานเพียงลำพัง “ตั้ง 100 เท่า” และแจ้งว่า หากว่าโรคลุกลามออกไปมากแล้ว จะรักษายาก เพราะอยู่ที่ว่าคนไข้จะทนกับยาได้มากแค่ไหน “เราพบวี่แววว่า มันทำให้เซลล์มะเร็งอ่อนไหวต่อเคมีบำบัดยิ่งขึ้น ทำให้มีหวังว่าจะได้ลดยาเคมีบำบัดลง ซึ่งคนไข้ก็จะแพ้น้อยลงไปด้วย”

ที่มา: ไทยรัฐ 11 พฤษภาคม 2555

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Curry Ingredient May Have Cancer Treatment Benefits

Article Date: 08 May 2012

New evidence, studied by researchers in the Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, at the University of Leicester, reveals that curcumin, found in the curry ingredient turmeric, may significantly reduce side effects for bowel cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and help them to be able to go through treatment longer.

Usually, patients suffering from bowel cancer are treated with FOLFOX, a combination of 3 chemotherapy medications. However, between 40 and 60 percent of bowel cancer patients do not benefit from this treatment, and those who do report painful side effects, including nerve pain and horrible tingling, can only do reduced chemotherapy cycles. Put simply, their chemotherapy treatments have to be stopped earlier.

A trial at the University of Leicester, England, will begin investigating the benefits of curcumin, in conjunction with chemotherapy medication. The researchers will recruit around 40 patients who have bowel cancer which has spread to their liver, 75% of whom will take the curcumin pills 7 days prior to starting FOLFOX, the normal chemotherapy treatment.

The goal is to determine whether or not curcumin is a safe addition to the treatment of bowel cancer which has already spread to other parts of the body.

Curcumin is the main curcuminoid of turmeric, a popular Indian spice. It is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae)

Previous studies have supported the idea that curcumin strengthens chemotherapy’s ability to eliminate bowel cancer cells in the lab.

Every year, in the UK alone, around 40,000 people are diagnosed with bowel cancer.

Funding for this study is provided by the Royal College of Surgeons, Hope Against Cancer and the Bowel Disease Research Foundation.

Written By Christine Kearney

Data  from: medicalnewstoday.com

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Curry Spice Component May Help Slow Prostate Tumor Growth

ScienceDaily (Feb. 10, 2012) — Curcumin, an active component of the Indian curry spice turmeric, may help slow down tumor growth in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients on androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), a study from researchers at Jefferson’s Kimmel Cancer Center suggests.

Reporting in a recent issue of Cancer Research, Karen Knudsen, Ph.D., a Professor of Cancer Biology, Urology and Radiation Oncology at Thomas Jefferson University, and colleagues observed in a pre-clinical study that curcumin suppresses two known nuclear receptor activators, p300 and CPB (or CREB1-binding protein), which have been shown to work against ADT.

ADT aims to inhibit the androgen receptor — an important male hormone in the development and progression of prostate cancer — in patients. But a major mechanism of therapeutic failure and progression to advanced disease is inappropriate reactivation of this receptor. Sophisticated tumor cells, with the help of p300 and CPB, sometimes bypass the therapy.

Thus, development of novel targets that act in concert with the therapy would be of benefit to patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer.

For the study, prostate cancer cells were subjected to hormone deprivation in the presence and absence of curcumin with “physiologically attainable’ doses. (Previous studies, which found similar results, included doses that were not realistic.)

Curcumin augments the results of ADT, and reduced cell number compared to ADT alone, the researchers found. Moreover, the spice was found to be a potent inhibitor of both cell cycle and survival in prostate cancer cells.

To help support their findings, the researchers also investigated curcumin in mice, which were castrated to mimic ADT. They were randomized into two cohorts: curcumin and control. Tumor growth and mass were significantly reduced in the mice with curcumin, the researchers report.

These data demonstrate for the first time that curcumin not only hampers the transition of ADT-sensitive disease to castration-resistance, but is also effective in blocking the growth of established castrate-resistant prostate tumors.

“This study sets the stage for further development of curcumin as a novel agent to target androgen receptor signaling,” said Dr. Knudsen. “It also has implications beyond prostate cancer since p300 and CBP are important in other malignancies, like breast cancer. In tumors where these play an important function, curcumin may prove to be a promising therapeutic agent.”

Journal Reference:

  1. S. A. Shah, S. Prasad, K. E. Knudsen. Targeting pioneering factor and hormone receptor cooperative pathways to suppress tumor progressionCancer Research, 2012; DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-0943

Data  from: sciencedaily.com

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Curcumin is a potent tool in the war against prostate cancer and dementia

Monday, February 27, 2012 by: John Phillip

(NaturalNews) Curcumin, the active anti-inflammatory compound found in the Indian spice tumeric, has gained an impressive reputation in the fight against many deadly forms of cancer. New evidence released in the journalCancer Researchfinds that the natural phenol can slow prostate tumor growth by blocking receptors used to propagate cell tissue growth.

Additional research published in the journalPLoS Oneexplains the precise mechanism exerted by curcumin molecules to target the amyloid fibrils associated with the unnatural progression of protein-like plaque tangles that are characteristic in Alzheimer’s disease patients. Adding curry spice to your healthy diet or supplementing daily with a standardized curcumin capsule will help win your individual war against cancerous proliferation and Alzheimer’s dementia.

Prostate cancer is one of the most common forms of the disease, with more than 250,000 diagnoses in the US each year. Any natural compound that targets the proliferation of prostate cancer cells would provide a significant remedy compared with the allopathic methods of radiation, surgery and chemical agents. To conduct the study, researchers subjected prostate cancer cells to hormone deprivation in the presence and absence of curcumin with ‘physiologically attainable’ doses.

Curcumin blocks prostate cell receptors to thwart cancer progression

The researchers found that curcumin blocked two genetic receptors necessary for prostate cancer advancement. These receptors have been shown is past studies to predict cancer incidence and rate of growth of existing tumors. They noted that the spice extract was“a potent inhibitor of both cell cycle and survival in prostate cancer cells.”

The lead study author, Dr. Karen Knudsen and her team found that other cancer cell lines multiply by a similar receptor mechanism and may also be inhibited by the curry compound. She commented that curcumin“also has implications beyond prostate cancer… in other malignancies, like breast cancer. In tumors where these play an important function, curcumin may prove to be a promising therapeutic agent.”

In a separate research body, scientists found that curcumin prolongs life and enhances activity of brain neurons, acting as a neuroprotective shield against Alzheimer’s disease advancement. The research team determined that curcumin acted to prevent the damaging accumulation of amyloid fibrils around the nerve synapse. Amyloid tangles are known to prevent normal electrical and chemical transmissions required to form memories and maintain cognition.

Scientific research models continue to extol the virtues of natural spice and herbal extracts such as curcumin to help prevent and treat many deadly diseases that kill countless millions each year. Incorporate curry spices as part of your healthy diet or include a daily supplement (250 mg to 500 mg standardized curcumin extract) to significantly lower cancer risk and support healthy brain function.

Sources for this article include:

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org

http://www.nutraingredients.com

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/02/120210105859.htm

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/241647.php

Data  from: naturalnews.com

รักษามะเร็งต่อมลูกหมากด้วยลำแข้ง เดินให้ไว เบรกโรคจนหยุดเอาไว้ได้

วารสารวิชาการ “งานวิจัยโรคมะเร็ง” ของสหรัฐฯ เปิดเผยว่า นักวิจัยมหาวิทยาลัยแคลิฟอร์เนีย ซานฟรานซิสโก ได้ยุให้ผู้ป่วยด้วยโรคมะเร็งของต่อมลูกหมากที่เพิ่งเป็นต่อสู้กับโรคด้วยการเดินเร็วๆ ไม่ใช่เดินแบบธรรมดา อาทิตย์ละไม่ต่ำกว่า 3 ชม. จะชะลออัตราการเติบโตของโรคลงได้ตั้งครึ่ง ทั้งยังจะต้านโรคไม่ให้ลุกลามออกไปได้นานถึง 2 ปี

นักวิจัยได้สังเกตพบจากคนไข้ชาย ส่วนใหญ่ วัย 60 ปี 1,455 คน ที่เพิ่งได้รับการวินิจฉัยโรคว่า เป็นมะเร็งของต่อมลูกหมากคงที่ หมายความว่า ยังไม่ลุกลามออกไป พวกเขาได้ซักถามถึงการออกกำลังของแต่ละคน และชนิดใดในแต่ละสัปดาห์

ระหว่างที่ติดตามดูอาการอยู่นานเป็นเวลา 31 เดือน นักวิจัยได้บันทึกได้ว่า มีผู้ป่วยรายที่มีอาการกลับมาอีก และที่เกิดเป็นมะเร็งกระดูกจนเสียชีวิตลง รวมทั้งหมด 117 กรณี แต่กับพวกคนไข้ที่ออกกำลังด้วยการเดินเร็ว อาทิตย์ละไม่ต่ำกว่า 3 ชม. มีอยู่เพียงไม่กี่คน

หัวหน้านักวิจัยกล่าวว่า “ดูเหมือนว่า คนไข้ที่ได้เดินเร็ว อาจจะไปต้านหรือถ่วงการดำเนินของโรคไว้ได้” ประโยชน์ของมันอยู่ตรง เดินไวขึ้นเท่าไหร่ หากเดินเนิบๆ ธรรมดาดูเหมือนจะไม่ได้อะไร.

 

ที่มา: ไทยรัฐ 21 มิถุนายน 2555

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Brisk walking may help men with prostate cancer

Email this article
Date: 2011-05-24
Contact: Jason Socrates Bardi
Phone: (415) 502-NEWS (6397)
Email: jason.bardi@ucsf.edu

SAN FRANCISCO — A study of 1,455 U.S. men diagnosed with early-stage prostate cancer has found a link between brisk walking and lowered risk of prostate cancer progression, according to scientists at the University of California, San Francisco and the Harvard School of Public Health.

The scientists found that men who walked briskly — at least three miles per hour — for at least three hours per week after diagnosis were nearly 60 percent less likely to develop biochemical markers of cancer recurrence or need a second round of treatment for prostate cancer.

“The important point was the intensity of the activity — the walking had to be brisk for men to experience a benefit,” said Erin Richman, ScD, a postdoctoral fellow at UCSF who is the first author on the study, published today in the journal Cancer Research. “Our results provide men with prostate cancer something they can do to improve their prognosis.”

An earlier study, published earlier this year by UCSF’s June Chan, ScD, and collaborators at the Harvard School of Public Health, showed that physical activity after diagnosis could reduce disease-related mortality in a distinct population of men with prostate cancer. The new study complements this finding, as it was the first to focus on the effect of physical activity after diagnosis on early indications of disease progression, such as a rise in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood levels.

“Our work suggests that vigorous physical activity or brisk walking can have a benefit at the earlier stages of the disease,” said Chan, the Steven and Christine Burd-Safeway Distinguished Professor at UCSF and senior author of both studies.

After skin cancer, prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed type of cancer among men in the United States, and more than 217,000 U.S. men are diagnosed with the disease every year according to the National Cancer Institute. Last year alone 32,050 men died from the disease.

Vigorous exercise and brisk walking consistently have been shown to have significant benefits on cardiovascular health, diabetes and many other diseases. Previous studies also have shown the benefit of regular physical activity for disease outcomes in breast and colon cancer, but this is one of the first studies to demonstrate such a benefit for men with prostate cancer.

The participants in this study were selected were a subset of a larger group of 14,000 men with prostate cancer who are enrolled in a long-term, nationwide prostate cancer registry study known as the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor (CaPSURE), led by Dr. Peter Carroll, MPH, who is the chair of the Urology Department at UCSF and an author of the study.

A particular strength of this study is the focus on early recurrence of prostate cancer, which occurs before men may experience painful symptoms of prostate cancer metastases, a frequent cause for men to decrease their usual physical activity. Additionally, the researchers reported that the benefit of physical activity was independent of the participants’ age at diagnosis, type of treatment and clinical features of their disease at diagnosis.

Asked whether she would recommend walking for all men who are diagnosed with prostate cancer, Dr. Chan said yes — but emphasized that the walking must be brisk.

“Our results suggest that it is important to engage in exercise that gets your heart rate up a little bit,” she advised.

The article, “Physical activity after diagnosis and risk of prostate cancer progression: data from the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor” is authored by Erin L. Richman, Stacey A. Kenfield, Meir J. Stampfer, Alan Paciorek, Peter R. Carroll and June M. Chan.

This work was funded by the Department of Defense, the Prostate Cancer Foundation, Abbott Labs and through a National Institutes of Health training grant.

UCSF is a leading university dedicated to promoting health worldwide through advanced biomedical research, graduate-level education in the life sciences and health professions, and excellence in patient care. Follow UCSF on Twitter.

Data from: universityofcalifornia.edu

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24 May 2011 Last updated at 16:07 GMT

Brisk walks fight prostate cancer

By Michelle RobertsHealth reporter, BBC News

Men who have been recently diagnosed with prostate cancer can help keep their disease at bay by taking brisk walks, claim researchers.

Based on their observations, men who power walk for at least three hours a week can halve how much their cancer will grow and spread over the next couple of years.

Strolling does not have the same effect, Cancer Research journal warns.

Experts say it shows that keeping active can improve health.

But they say the findings should be interpreted with caution because the men who did more walking also tended to be younger, leaner, and non-smokers, which could also explain some of the differences seen.

Leg work

The University of California San Francisco study looked at the outcomes of 1,455 men, mostly in their 60s, who were diagnosed with “localised” prostate cancer, meaning it had not yet started to spread.

Continue reading the main story

“Start Quote

Walking is something everyone can and should do to improve their health”

Lead researcher Erin Richman

The men were asked to say how much exercise and of what type they took in the average week.

During the 31 months of follow up, the US researchers recorded 117 events, including disease recurrence, bone tumours and deaths specifically caused by prostate cancer.

And they found that men who walked briskly for at least three hours a week were far less likely to have one of these events.

The brisk walkers had a 57% rate of progression of disease than men who walked at an easy pace for less than three hours a week.

Lead researcher Erin Richman said: “It appears that men who walk briskly after their diagnosis may delay or even prevent progression of their disease.

“The benefit from walking truly depended on how quickly you walked. Walking at an easy pace did not seem to have any benefit.

“Walking is something everyone can and should do to improve their health.”

The scientists believe power walking might affect prostate cancer progression by changing blood levels of certain proteins that have been shown in the lab to encourage cancer growth.

Dr Helen Rippon, head of research management at The Prostate Cancer Charity, said: “Although this research will need to be repeated to make sure the results can be applied to all men with prostate cancer, we would certainly advise men diagnosed with prostate cancer to ensure that their lifestyle includes a good amount of physical activity – and walking is often the easiest way of achieving this.”

Liz Woolf of Cancer Research UK said: “We know there are many benefits to exercise and that it can help people to recover more quickly after cancer treatment but it’s difficult to set specific levels of exercise as everyone’s needs and abilities are different.

“Just to be safe, it is important that people with cancer check with their doctor before taking up any new form of exercise.”

 

Data from: bbc.co.uk

 

ผู้ชายผู้ติดชาหนักดื่มตลอดทั้งวัน มีหวังเป็นโรคมะเร็งต่อมลูกหมาก

มหาวิทยาลัยกลาสโกว์ของอังกฤษศึกษาพบว่า ผู้ชายผู้ที่ดื่มชามากๆ อาจจะทำให้เป็นโรคมะเร็งของต่อมลูกหมากได้นักวิจัยได้ศึกษาโดยการคอยติดตามสุขภาพ ของกลุ่มอาสาสมัครชาย อายุไม่ต่ำกว่า 37 ปี จำนวน 6,000 คน พบว่า ผู้ที่ติดการดื่มชาอย่างหนัก ซดวันละไม่ต่ำกว่า 7 ถ้วย มีหวังจะเป็นโรคมะเร็งของต่อมลูกหมากยิ่งกว่าผู้ที่ดื่มปานกลางไม่เกิน 4 ถ้วย และผู้ที่ไม่ชอบดื่มถึงร้อยละ 50

วารสารวิชาการ “โภชนาการและโรคมะเร็ง” รายงานผลการศึกษาเรื่องนี้ แจ้งว่า ดร.คาชิฟ  ชาฟิกว์  หัวหน้าสถาบันสาธารณสุขและสวัสดิการ มหาวิทยาลัยกลาสโกว์ ผู้เป็นหัวหน้านักวิจัย กล่าวบอกว่า เราก็ยังไม่รู้ว่าตัวชาเองเป็นปัจจัยเสี่ยงโดยตรง หรือเป็นเพราะว่า การดื่มชาช่วยให้สุขภาพดีขึ้น จนอยู่มาได้จนแก่ ซึ่งเป็นวัยที่มักจะเป็นโรคนี้กันมาก ธรรมดาผู้ที่ดื่มชามาก จะไม่ค่อยอ้วน ไม่กินเหล้ามาก และไม่ค่อยจะมีไขมันในเลือดสูง.

ที่มา: ไทยรัฐ 22 มิถุนายน 2555

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Seven cups of tea a day ‘raises risk of prostate cancer by 50%’

  • Researchers tracked 6,000 men over 37 years
  • Previous research suggested tea-drinking had health benefits
  • Study found that subjects who drank most tea were often teetotal
  • Britons consume an estimated 165million cups of tea a day

By JENNY HOPE
PUBLISHED: 23:48 GMT, 18 June 2012 | UPDATED: 00:44 GMT, 19 June 2012

Men who drink lots of tea are far more likely to develop prostate cancer, researchers have warned.

They found that those who drank seven or more cups a day had a 50 per cent higher risk of contracting the disease than men who had three or fewer.

The warning comes after scientists at the University of Glasgow tracked the health of more than 6,000 men for four decades.

Their findings run counter to previous research, which had suggested that tea-drinking lowers the risk of cancer, as well as heart disease, diabetes and Parkinson’s disease.

The study, led by Dr Kashif Shafique, began in 1970.

Participants aged between 21 and 75 were asked to complete a questionnaire about their usual consumption of tea, coffee and alcohol as well as their smoking habits and general health, and had to attend a screening examination.

Just under a quarter of the 6,016 men were heavy tea drinkers, consuming seven or more cups a day. Of these, 6.4 per cent developed prostate cancer over the next  37 years.

 

Researchers found that the subjects who drank the most tea were often teetotal and led healthy lifestyles.

As a result, they may have been at a lower risk of death from ‘competing causes’, effectively giving them more time to develop prostate cancer, the journal Nutrition and Cancer reports.

Dr Shafique said: ‘Most previous research has shown either no relationship with prostate cancer for black tea, or some preventive effect of green tea.

‘We don’t know whether tea itself is a risk factor or if tea-drinkers are generally healthier and live to an older age, when prostate cancer is more common anyway.’

He added that those drinking the most tea were less likely to be overweight or drink alcohol, and more likely to have healthy cholesterol levels.

‘However, we did adjust for these differences in our analysis and still found that men who drank the most tea were at greater risk of prostate cancer,’ he said.

Dr Shafique did stress, however, that his team was ‘unaware of any constituent of black tea that may be responsible for carcinogenic activity in prostate cells’.

Previous research has found health benefits from flavonoids – antioxidant compounds in tea that are thought to control inflammation, reduce excess blood clotting and limit narrowing of the arteries.

Of seven previous studies on black tea and prostate cancer, four found a potentially protective effect while the remainder found no effect either way.

Dr Kate Holmes, head of research at The Prostate Cancer Charity, said: ‘Whilst it does appear that those who drank seven or more cups of tea each day had an increased risk of developing prostate cancer, this did not take into consideration family history or any other dietary elements other than tea, coffee and alcohol intake.

‘It is therefore unclear as to whether there were other factors in play which may have had a greater impact on risk.’

Almost 80 per cent of Britons drink tea, consuming an estimated 165million cups each day. The British tea industry is thought to be worth more than £700million a year.

 

Dr Carrie Ruxton of the Tea Advisory Panel, an educational body funded by the industry, said just 92 men in the Glasgow study drank more than seven cups a day and went on to develop prostate cancer.

She added: ‘We’re lacking the complete picture because we don’t know what other dietary factors were involved. Other research suggests tea has a protective or neutral effect on prostate cancer, and the authors acknowledge there is no known ingredient in tea that is cancer-causing.

‘Tea-drinking may be a marker for some sort of behaviour that can raise the risk of prostate cancer, but the study does not show it is a cause.’

Prostate cancer strikes 40,000 British men each year, causing more than 10,000 deaths.

Data from: dailymail.co.uk

ใช้ผึ้งรักษาโรคมะเร็งต่อมลูกหมาก เป็นยากลางบ้านทำมาหลายศตวรรษ

มหาวิทยาลัยแพทย์ชิคาโก ของสหรัฐฯ พบว่ายากลางบ้าน ที่ได้จากรังผึ้งในธรรมชาติ สามารถสกัดเซลล์มะเร็งต่อมลูกหมาก ไม่ให้เจริญเติบโตต่อไปได้

ยางเหนียวจากดอกไม้ที่ผึ้งเอามาใช้ทำรัง มนุษย์ได้เอาใช้เป็นยากลางบ้าน แก้คอเจ็บ แก้แพ้ ไฟลวกและมะเร็งมาหลายศตวรรษแล้ว แต่สถานพยาบาลยังข้องใจในฤทธิ์เดชของมันกับเซลล์มะเร็ง เพราะยังไม่พบหลักฐานทางวิทยาศาสตร์

รายงานผลการศึกษา ในวารสาร “งานวิจัยป้องกันมะเร็ง” แจ้งว่า นักวิจัยได้พบว่า มันมีฤทธิ์หยุดยั้งการเจริญเติบโตของมะเร็งต่อมลูกหมากระยะต้นได้ โดยขัดขวางเซลล์เนื้อร้ายไม่ให้พบพานแหล่งอาหาร จากการทดลองกับหนู

หัวหน้านักวิจัยกล่าวว่า “หากว่าเราป้อนสารนั้นให้หนูกินทุกวัน มันจะไปทำให้เนื้อร้ายไม่เจริญเติบโต แต่ถ้าหากเลิกให้กิน มะเร็งก็จะกลับเติบโตในอัตราเดิมใหม่อีก ดังนั้นจึงเห็นได้ว่า มันไม่ได้ฆ่ามะเร็ง เพียงแต่โดยพื้นฐานเพื่อขัดขวางการเติบโตเอาไว้”.

 
ที่มา: ไทยรัฐ 10 พฤษภาคม 2555

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HOPE BEE MEDICINE WILL TACKLE SCOURGE OF PROSTATE CANCER

Saturday May 5,2012
By Jo Willey

AN over-the-counter natural remedy obtained from honeybees could be the key to tackling prostate cancer.

Research has shown the potent compound can stop the growth of killer cells and tumours.

The ancient remedy, called propolis, comes from resin used by bees to patch up holes in their hives.

It has been used for centuries for conditions ranging from sore throats and allergies to burns and cancer.

But the compound has not gained acceptance in clinics because of scientific questions about its effect on cells.

Now, however, researchers at the University of Chicago Medicine in the US have found that a compound isolated from bee-hive propolis, called caffeic acid phenethyl ester, or Cape, can slow early-stage prostate cancer by shutting down the tumour cells’ system for detecting sources of nutrition.

Senior researcher Dr Richard Jones said: “If you feed Cape to mice daily, their tumours will stop growing.

“After several weeks, if you stop the treatment, the tumours will begin to grow again at their original pace. So it doesn’t kill the cancer, but it basically will indefinitely stop prostate cancer proliferation.”

To study the purported anti-cancer properties, experts tested the compound on a series of cancer cell lines. Even at the low concentrations expected after oral administration, Cape successfully slowed the proliferation of cultured cells isolated from human prostate tumours.

It was also effective at slowing the growth of human prostate tumours grafted into mice.

Six weeks of treatment with the compound decreased tumour volume growth rate by half.

But when treatment was stopped, tumour growth resumed at its previous rate.

The results suggested that Cape stopped cell division rather than killing cancerous cells.

To determine the cellular changes that caused this effect, researchers then used a tech-­ nique invented by Dr Jones and colleagues which allowed them to survey hundreds of proteins at once from many samples. The technique allowed researchers to build a new model of Cape’s cellular effects, significantly expanding on previous work that studied the compound’s mechanisms.

Dr Jones said that because Cape has the ability to stop cancer-cell spread, it could make it a promising treatment to use alongside chemotherapies which kill tumour cells.

But he cautioned that clinical trials would be necessary before it could be proven effective and safe for this purpose in humans.

Dr Kate Holmes, head of research at The Prostate Cancer Charity, said: “This study does suggest that Cape can reduce the growth of artificially grown human prostate tumours in mice.

“However this research is very early stage and many more detailed studies will have to take place before we will know if Cape would have a similar effect on prostate tumours in men.

“We would not recommend anyone with prostate cancer or trying to prevent prostate cancer, to consume Cape supplements without further evidence that this might be effective in humans.”

Dr Julie Sharp, Cancer Research UK’s senior science information manager, said: “While this natural extract seems to have some effect in slowing down prostate cancer cells in the lab, much more research will be needed to work out whether it could have the same effect in humans.”

The findings were published in the journal Cancer Prevention Research.

 

Data from: express.co.uk

 

พบมะเร็งมีมานานกว่าสองพันปี

บางคนเชื่อว่า โรคมะเร็ง เกิดขึ้นในยุคที่ผู้คนสร้างมลภาวะด้านต่างๆ ประกอบกับคนสมัยนี้เน้นกินอาหารจานด่วน เอาความสะดวกบวกรสอร่อยเป็นหลัก โดยไม่สนใจว่า อาหารเหล่านั้นมีประโยชน์ต่อสุขภาพหรือไม่ และจะสร้างโรคภัยไข้เจ็บในอนาคตอย่างไร

แต่แล้วความเชื่อข้างต้นอาจเปลี่ยนไป เพราะเมื่อไม่นานมานี้ ศาสตราจารย์จากมหาวิทยาลัยอเมริกันในไคโร ประเทศอียิปต์ เผยว่า พวกเขาพบร่องรอยของโรคมะเร็งต่อมลูกหมากในร่างมัมมี่อายุราว 2,200 ปี ซึ่งอาจชี้ให้เห็นว่า มะเร็งเกิดจากพันธุกรรม มิใช่สภาพแวดล้อม ดังนั้น เรื่องของพันธุศาสตร์จากกรณีดังกล่าว อาจเป็นกุญแจสำคัญที่ช่วยให้เข้าใจโรคมะเร็งมากขึ้น

ซึ่งศาสตราจารย์ซาริมา อิค-ราม หนึ่งในคณะวิจัย เล่าด้วยว่า ร่างมัมมี่ล่าสุดที่ทำการศึกษานี้มาจากโปรตุเกส พวกเขาใช้เวลาค้นคว้านาน 2 ปี จึงสรุปได้ว่า มัมมี่ร่างนี้เป็นเพศชาย ตายในช่วงวัย 40 ปี และมีร่องรอยมะเร็งต่อมลูกหมาก

อย่างไรก็ตาม คณะวิจัยชี้ว่า สภาพความเป็นอยู่ในสมัยโบราณมีความแตกต่างหลากหลายมาก แต่ก็คงไม่มีมลพิษและการดัดแปลง-แปรรูปอาหารเท่ากับยุคปัจจุบัน เพราะฉะนั้นคณะวิจัยจึงเชื่อว่า โรคมะเร็งไม่ได้เกิดขึ้นจากสภาพแวดล้อมของสังคมอุตสาหกรรมเท่านั้น

ไม่ว่ามะเร็งจะมีต้นตอมาจากสิ่งใดได้บ้าง การรู้รักษาตัวรอดจากโรคมะเร็งนั้นก็ยังสำคัญที่สุด.

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ที่มา: เดลินิวส์ 31 มกราคม 2555

related link:

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2093675/2-200-year-old-Egyptian-mummy-prostate-cancer.html

2,200-year-old Egyptian mummy had prostate cancer 

  • Disease likely t obe caused by genetics not environment
  • Scans reveal tumours between pelvis and spine

By DAILY MAIL REPORTER

Last updated at 10:04 AM on 31st January 2012

Oldest case in Egypt: The 2,250-year-old Ptolemaic mummy, which revealed tell-tale signs of prostate cancer under high-powered digital imagingDiscovery of prostate cancer in a 2,200-year-old mummy suggests the disease is caused by genetics – not the environment.

Professor Salima Ikram, of the American University in Cairo, Egypt, said: ‘Living conditions in ancient times were very different; there were no pollutants or modified foods, which leads us to believe that the disease is not necessarily only linked to industrial factors.’

Whether environment or genetics triggers cancer is key to understanding it.

The unnamed Ptolemaic mummy, which is kept at the National Archaeology Museum of Lisbon, had a pattern of round and dense tumours between its pelvis and lumbar spine – giveaway signs of man’s modern-day killer.

The mummy was that of a 5ft 5ins adult male‭ who lived between 285 and 230 BC and was between 51 and 60 years old when he died, researchers said.

‘The bone lesions were considered very suggestive of metastatic prostate cancer,‭’ ‬wrote the researchers in the International Journal of Paleopathology.

They subjected the mummy, known as M1, to powerful Multi Detector Computerized Tomography‭ (‬MDCT‭) ‬scans, which produced‭ ‘really unusual high quality images’, ‬Carlos Prates,‭ ‬a radiologist at Imagens Médicas Integradas in Lisbon, told Discovery News.

Digital X-rays showed that M1‭ ‬had been buried with crossed arms‭ – a common pose in Ptolemaic mummies,‭ ‬although in the New Kingdom it was often associated with royals‭.

He was adorned with a cartonnage mask and bib,‭ ‬and boasted an elaborately painted shroud.

The images showed he suffered from lumbosacral osteoarthritis,‭ ‬which was probably related to a lower lumbar scoliosis and there were several‭ post-mortem fractures,‭ ‬possibly produced when the mummy was transported to Europe.

But they also found a variety of tumors,‭ ‬measuring between‭ ‬0.03ins‭ ‬and‭ ‬0.59‭inches,‭ ‬interspersed‭ along ‬M1‭’‬s pelvis and lumbar spine.‭

Prostatic carcinoma begins in the walnut-sized prostate gland and typically spreads to the pelvic region,‭ ‬the lumbar spine,‭ ‬the upper arm and leg bones, and the ribs,‭ ‬ultimately reaching most of the skeleton.‭

Dr Prates and colleagues‭ ‬considered other diseases as alternatives.‭ ‬But‭ ‬M1‭’‬s sex,‭ ‬age,‭ ‬the‭ ‬distribution pattern of the lesions,‭ ‬their shape and density,‭ ‬strongly argued for prostate cancer.

‘It is the oldest known case of prostate cancer in ancient Egypt and the‭ ‬second‭ ‬oldest case in history,‭’ Dr ‬Prates said.

The earliest diagnosis of‭ ‬metastasising prostate carcinoma came in‭ ‬2007 ‬when researchers investigated the skeleton of a‭ ‬2,700-year-old Scythian king who died,‭ ‬aged‭ ‬40 to 50,‭ ‬in the steppe of Southern Siberia,‭ ‬Russia.‭

‘This study shows that cancer did exist in antiquity,‭ ‬for sure in ancient Egypt.‭ ‬The main reason for the scarcity of examples found today might be the lower prevalence of carcinogens and the shorter life expectancy,‭’ ‬Paula Veiga,‭ ‬a researcher in Egyptology,‭ ‬told Discovery News.

Moreover,‭ ‬high-resolution CT scanners,‭ ‬able to detect tiny‭ ‬tumors‭ only ‬became available only in‭ ‬2005., which suggests earlier researchers may have missed them.